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tisdag 7 maj 2019

Israelin tiistai: Gaza alkaa koota uusia rakettikekojaan.

https://www.i24news.tv/en/news/international/middle-east/1557230488-gazans-start-to-rebuild-after-weekend-bombing-facing-an-uncertain-future

Toistaiseksi Gazan strategia on kuin termiittikeoilla- Kyllä se onistuu jos aina tuhoaa . Jonkin ajan kuluttua koko maapallo on kuin saharn termiittikekoja. Lienee sitten  islamilaisilla  onnelliset olot.



Mitä Israel tänään tekee?
Israelilla on alkanut   Kaatuneitten muistopäivä  Jom HaZiccaron.
 http://www.israelnationalnews.com/

Mitä Israel huomenna tekee?
Israel juhlii  Itsenäisyyspäivää.  Ijarkuun 4. päivä 5779.  
Mitä hyvää voisi Israelille toivottaa Jumalan siunauksen lisäksi, joka Israelilla jo on?
Toivon Tsraelille hyviä naapurivaltioita, jotka ovat oikeusvaltioita ja joissa  on lämminsydämisiä ihmisiä ja  todella  miellyttäviä naapureita, joiden kanssa Lähi-Itä  voi  tulla paikaksi, jonne kristikunta mielellään tulee  pyhiinvaellusmatkalle Raamatun pyhille paikoille  pelkäämättä  islamilaisten taholta tulevia  sotia ja  vaaroja.
Toivon Lähi-Itään rauhaa, jossa jokainen alue ja valtio  sallii naapurialueilleenkin  rauhanaikoja maanviljelykseen, vesistöjen hoitoon, ilmastonmuutoksesta selviämiseen,  yhteiskuntien moderniin rakentamiseen ja jossa toimii valtiollinen  politiikka, demokratia, tasa-arvo ja koulut ja kaikki tieteenalat  kuten niissä  maissa, joissa  on päästy maailmansotien kurimuksista ja opittu välttämään sotaa. Rauha Israelille ja  vihollisuuksien lopettaminen  Israelin vihollisille. Silloin on koko maailman rauha!


JPost 7.5. 2019

https://www.jpost.com/Middle-East/Three-dead-600-rockets-and-a-weekend-full-of-terror-in-Israel-588866
...a rocket propelled grenade (RPG)** attached to a drone. The RPG-laden drone, which landed on a tank deployed along the border, did not explode.
On Saturday night, Moshe Agadi, Z"L  a father of four, was killed when a rocket struck his home in Ashkelon when he went out to smoke a cigarette. He was struck by shrapnel to his stomach and chest and was taken by Magen David Adom teams to Barzilai Hospital where he was pronounced dead.

Moshe Feder Z"L,, 64, from Kfar Saba, was killed Sunday afternoon after a *Kornet anti-tank guided missile struck a car near the Gaza border between the communities of Yad Mordechai and Sderot.

Ziad Alhamamda Z"L
  was killed after he was critically injured in his chest by shrapnel from a direct strike on a factory in Ashkelon, dying from his wounds shortly after.

Pinchas Menachem Prezuazman Z"L ,
21 years-old, was also killed Sunday evening after he suffered severe shrapnel injuries to his chest while running to a shelter in Ashdod.

On Sunday afternoon, Israel’s Security Cabinet met and instructed the military to intensify its attacks in the Strip.

Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh said on Sunday night that he does not rule out the possibility of reaching a ceasefire agreement with Israel.


* Tästä  tekstitä ei selviä minkä koon  ja minkä valmistajan antitankkeriohjus oli kyseessä.
Wikipedia kertoo esimerkiksi: 
The Kornet-EM is a multi-purpose anti tank guided missile system designed and manufactured by KBP Instrument Design Bureau. The long-range missile system was unveiled at the Moscow Airshow (MAKS) in August 2011. The system was also demonstrated at the Russian Arms Expo (RAE) in September 2013.
The missile system is designed to destroy advanced and modern tanks fitted with explosive reactive armour, light-armoured vehicles and fortifications. It can also engage surface-level marine and low-speed aerial targets at ranges between 150m and 10,000m.

**  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket-propelled_grenade

Tarrkennan  tietoja  tapausten kulusta IDF- uutisista: 

Zahalin uutisissa  kuvataan 48 tunnin terroriaaltoa näin:

48 Hours of Terror from Gaza
Over the course of 48 hours, southern Israel was struck with an endless barrage of rockets from Gaza. While Israeli families were observing the Sabbath on Friday and Saturday terror groups Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas fired more than 690 rockets from Gaza into Israel.
Background
At one of Hamas’ weekly violent riots along Israel’s security fence with Gaza on Friday, snipers in the southern Gaza Strip opened fire on the Israeli side of the fence, wounding two IDF soldiers. In response to the attack, the IDF struck a Hamas military post.

The following morning, Saturday, May 4, Hamas and PIJ began a massive rocket bombardment, indiscriminately firing rockets at Israeli civilians. Air raid sirens sounded across southern and central Israel, sending thousands of Israeli civilians into shelters.
Those who couldn’t make it to reinforced shelters ran for cover, others laid on the ground, covering their heads with their hands in case of falling shrapnel.
Round-the-clock Terror
Four Israelis were killed in the rocket attacks: Moshe Agadi, 58; Pinchas Menachem Prezuazman, 21; Zaid al-Hamamde, 47; and Moshe Feder, 68.
More than 130 other Israelis were wounded, and hundreds more are suffering from shock and anxiety. Rockets launched by Hamas and PIJ have hit homes, schools, kindergartens, and other civilian targets.
Soldiers operating the Iron Dome aerial defense system intercepted more than 240 of the over 690 rockets fired towards Israeli cities, towns, and villages, preventing countless deaths and injuries and avoiding further damage.
IDF Defends  
The IDF responded to the round-the-clock rocket attacks with focused strikes on approximately 350 Hamas and PIJ terror targets in the Gaza Strip. These included rocket launch sites, terror squads, terror operatives, command centers, weapon storage facilities, observation posts, and military compounds.
Also targeted was a Hamas underground rocket manufacturing facility, a PIJ cross-border terror tunnel shaft, Hamas’ Military Intelligence and the General Security offices, Hamas and PIJ naval vessels, Hamas’ cyber headquarters, and weapon manufacturing sites.
Many of the targeted sites had been intentionally embedded and concealed in densely populated civilian areas; these terror groups use their own civilians to shield their terror infrastructure.
The IDF will continue to defend the people of Israel and will continue to act against those who threaten them.



lördag 4 maj 2019

Matteus-leeviläisen evankeliumi

https://www.yeshuachai.tv/node/686
Kuuntelin  tämän 4.5. 2019. 
Toda LaEl, Toda leChaverim Messichim!

torsdag 2 maj 2019

JOM HASHOA- päivän rukous

Today, on Yom HaShoah, we call on You, Almighty God, to help us hear Your voice that says in every generation:
Do not murder.
Do not stand idly by the blood of your neighbour.
Do not oppress the stranger.
We know that whilst we do not have the ability to change the past, we can change the future.
We know that whilst we cannot bring the dead back to life, we can ensure their memories live on and that their deaths were not in vain.
And so, on this Yom HaShoah, we commit ourselves to one simple act: Yizkor, Remember.
May the souls of the victims be bound in the bond of everlasting life.
Amen.

http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/23805

fredag 5 april 2019

Kuumodulin sieppaus kuun vetovoiman piiriin onnistunut tänään 4.4. aamupäivällä 2019.

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/israeli-lunar-lander-slips-into-orbit-around-the-moon/

A small Israeli spacecraft executed a critical rocket firing Thursday, easing out of a highly elliptical Earth orbit and into one around the moon. It sets the stage for an automated landing attempt April 11.
The spacecraft is the first privately funded, non-superpower lunar lander. 
"The lunar capture is an historic event in and of itself, but it also joins Israel in a seven-nation club that has entered the moon's orbit," said Morris Kahn, chairman of SpaceIL, the non-profit that brought the Beresheet moon landing mission to fruition. "A week from today we'll make more history by landing on the moon, joining three super powers who have done so. Today I am proud to be an Israeli."
 Launched February 21 as a secondary payload aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, the robotic Beresheet's main engine fired seven times over the past few weeks to raise the high point of its orbit to an altitude just past the moon's orbit 240,000 miles away.
 For Thursday's maneuver, a six-minute burn began at 10:18 a.m. ET, reducing Beresheet's velocity relative to the moon by about 620 miles per hour, just enough to allow lunar gravity to capture the spacecraft. The burn was designed to put the craft into an orbit with a low point of about 310 miles and a high point around 6,213 miles.
The firing was critical because without it, Beresheet would have sailed past the moon into a useless orbit around the sun, bringing the mission to a disappointing end.
But the rocket firing went smoothly, setting the stage for landing on a broad plain known as Mare Serenitatis on April 11. If successful, Israel will join the United States, Russia and China as only the fourth nation to land an operational spacecraft on the moon.


lördag 30 mars 2019

Aakorin laakso ( Valley of Achor) Toivon Oveksi (Petah Tikva)

Joosuan kirjassa on kertomus  Juudan pojan serahin suvun yhdestä perhekunnasta, joka  tuomittiin  sotarikoksesta perhekuntineen.

Joosua 7. kertoo  tappiosta Joosuan sodassa. Kyse oli Jerikon valloituksesta ja siitä oli tarkka stretegia. Arkki oli mukana. Mitään tuhonomaksi vihittyä ( saastaista, infektoitunutta)  ei saanut ottaa saaliiksi, Sellaista mikä oli pestävissä toi tulella steriloitavissa  heillä oli lupa  ottaa  ja antaa Pyhäkön aarteiksi.Ei kenellekän henkilölle itselleen.
Kuietnkin Serahilainen  Aakan, Karmin poika, Sabdin poika , Juudan sukukunansta, otti itselleen tuhonomaksi vihittyä - jonkin  kauniin  sinerarista peräisin olevan ulkomaisen  kankaan sekä kultaa, ja hopeaa ja piilotti ne asuntoonsa.  Kansasta arvottiin esiin  sukukunta sukukunnalta henkilö ja tämä Aakan  tunnusti mitäoli tehnyt. hänen koko perhekuntansa ( alavirtaan päin) sai  kuolemanrangaistuksen ja paikka niemttiin aakorin laaksoksi.  Näin statistisesti ajatellen tämä olit avallaan symbolinen ratkaisu, jonka järkyttävä vaikutus  aiheutti koko kansassa käytöksen muutoksen.  Nähdäkseni   osa  Aakanin perheistä ei ollut missään yhteydessä tähän rikokseen, esim. pikkulapset. Sen takia he ovat  sijaiskärsijöitä ja on ymmärrettävää, että kaikki tuollainen  sijaiskärsijäksi  joutuminen saa joskus korvauksensa. . Myöhemmissa  profetioissa tästä Juudan sukukunnan  rajamerkistä  Aakorin laaksosta sanotaan  hyviäkin sanoja.  Koetan etsiä niitä

Tämän tapauksen jälkeen
Joosua 8. luku  kertoo toisen tilanteen Israelin  alkusodista Pyhässä Maassa. Joosua piti kansan katselmuksen  (Joosua 8: 10)  Jumalan henki oli antanut vahvistuksen että Jumala tukee Joosuan kättä  ja armeijaa tässä sodassa pakanuutta vastaan, mutta  kansan oli  lupa ottaa saaliista ja  karjaa;  raunioitettava kuitenkin  tuo pakanallinen kulttikeskus. Väki teki niin.  Silloin he saivat ottaa tiettyä sotasaalista  valtiolle eikä kukaan joutunut sotarikoksesta tuomituksi. Nämä sotarikostapaukset ovat  myös kaikissa aknsoissa hyvin nopeita äkkituomioitakin jos sota on meneillään. Toisissa olosuhteissa ei rangaistus ehkä olisi samnaasteinen, mutt tässä oli vaikutus koko  miljoonakansan käyttäytymiseen hengenvaarallisessa tilanteessa.

Löydän  maininan Hoosean kirjasta, joka on muutenkin ei-konventionelli profetia.

Hoosean kirja esittää, miten Jumala aiemmein rankaistuaan omaa kansaansa, nyt koettaa voittaa takaisin kansansa mielisuosion ja luottamuksen ja vastarakkauden.
"Minä taivuttelen hänet , kuljetan hänet erämaahan ja viihdyttelen häntä. Annan hänelle sieltä alkaen hänen viinimäkensä, ynnä Aakorin laakson ( Emeq Achor)  Toivon Oveksi.  (Petah Tikva) - ja hän on oleva siellä kuuliainen niinkuin nuoruutensa päivinä, niinkuin sinä päivänä, jona hän Egyptin maasta lähi.
Hoosea 2: 14(16)- 15(17)
 Muistiin 30.3.2019.
P.s. Koetan löytää missä kohta Aakorin laakso kartalla on.
 https://books.google.se/books?id=fKpJCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA347&lpg=PA347&dq=valley+of+Achor,+Emeq+Achor&source=bl&ots=fMscVAIYqH&sig=ACfU3U06b3GB-UXMANR7kRP4amsDfbcfPA&hl=sv&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiI49Dh6qrhAhVN4KYKHcSsDbUQ6AEwCXoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=valley%20of%20Achor%2C%20Emeq%20Achor&f=false

Tämä paikkakuntien luettelo tässä Juudan sukukunnan rajalla tuo mieleen UT:n kartomuksen Sakkeuksesta, joka  tuli  parannukseen ja sai  armon ja korjasi omat vääryytensä.
Luukas 19: 4-10.
Joosua  mainitsee  seuraavat paikkakunnat Juudan Pohjoisrajalla.
"Juudan alueen pohjoinen raja alkaa siitä Suolameren pohjukasta, jossa on Jordanin suu. Sieltä raja nousee Beet-Hoglaan ja kulkee Beet-Araban pohjoispuoliste; edelleen raja nousee Boohanin, Ruubenin pojan, kiveen. Sitten raja nousee Debiriin Aakorin laaksosta ja kääntyy  pohjoiseen päin Gilgalia kohti, joka on vastapäätä  puron eteläpuolella olevaa Adummimin  solaa; sitten  raja kulkee een-Shemeksen veteen ja päättyy Roogelin lähteeseen. Joosua 15: 5: 7..

( Adummimin sola lienee se Wadi Kelt ja sen pohjalla on purovettä, Nahal Prat. Olen käynyt tuolla Wadin pohjalla. Siellä on  kalliorinteessä eräs luostari)
Adummim  kylä on  nyt  siellä Jerusalemin  lähistöllä  korkealla vuorella.


Wadi Qilt. Also known as Wadi Qelt, Wadi Kilt, Wady el-Kelt, Wady Kelt ... Along it runs the “Ascent of Adummim,” the main route from Jericho to Jerusalem.

Muistiin 30.3. 2019


Skorppionisolan tie nykyään ja ennen , Maale Akrabim, Juudan sukukunta

Maale Akrabim on mainittu Joosuassa 16: 3.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BiDkiiqfcqA
 Tässä onieno filmi tästä tiestä.  keinuvat mutikat  teki mieleen vanhan laulun, johon lisäsin värssyn.
---
AA, AA, Allin lasta,
Äiti heijaa tuutilasta!
Taivaan Isä heijaa vasta,
kun äiti lakkaa heijaamasta.
...


 Nykyään on asfaltoitu tie.  reitti 227 on 34 km.  ja se on jakso  reitin 206 ja Ovotin välillä.-Originaalinen tie on brittien tekemä 1927 ja ennen vuotta 1956 se toimi  pääasiallisena  tienä Beershebasta Eilatiin erämaan läpi.  Skorppionisolatie on tunnettu kyllä jo historiasta, se on israelilaista  kansallista historiallista perimäkohtaa.  roomalaiset  rakensivat  nousurinnetta  jo  ensimmäisen vuosisadan lopulla Wadi Zin-  kansjonista päin kohti pohjoisempaa Negeviä-  koettaessaan saada  hallintaansa Keski-Itää.  Britten mandaattiaikana nousurinnetta  rakennettiin hieman  uudestaan. Nabatealaisten ajanjaksona  tie  oli osa maustekauppareittiä.
Netissä on viedoita, joissa tämä tie on moottoripyöräurheilijoiden suosima "hurjastelutie".  Israelin Armeija päällysti tietä 1950.
  • Route 227 (Hebrew: כביש 227‎, Kvish 227) in Israel is a 34-kilometre (21 mi) road in the eastern Negev desert. It starts from an intersection with Route 206 in the northwest and ends in Ir Ovot in the southeast, intersecting with Highway 90.[1] It has one at-grade intersection at 19 km. The original road (since upgraded) was laid by British land surveyors in 1927. Prior to 1956, this was the primary route from Beersheba to Eilat.[2]
  • The Scorpion's Pass (Hebrew: מעלה עקרבים‎, Ma'ale Akrabim) is a steep, twisted section of Route 227, starting from the Tzafir stone structure (an archaeological site) in the south.
  • The Scorpion's Pass is a recognized heritage site in Israel.
  • The Roman Empire built the ascent in the late 1st century CE from the Wadi Zin to the highlands of the northern Negev desert during their control of the Middle East. Under British control, the ascent was slightly rebuilt to the north.[3]

Juudan heimon rajoilta. Skorppionisola 1954.

 Joosua 15:1 Juudan jälkeläisten sukukunta, heidän sukunsa, saivat arpaosansa etelästä, Edomin rajaan ja Ziinin erämaahan päin, etäisintä etelää myöten. Heidän eteläinen rajansa alkaa Suolameren päästä, sen eteläisimmästä pohjukasta, jatkuu Skorpionisolan eteläpuolitse, kulkee Ziiniin, nousee Kaades-Barnean eteläpuolitse, kulkee Hesronin, nousee Addariin ja kääntyy Karka´aan päin.  Edelleen  se kulkee Asmoniin ja jatkuu Egyptin puroon; siten raja päättyy mereen. Tämä olkoon teidän eteläinen rajanne.


Maale Akrabim, Skorpionikukkula 1954

  • The Ma'ale Akrabim massacre was an attack on an Israeli civilian passenger bus, carried out the night of 16-17 March 1954. Eleven passengers were shot dead by the attackers who ambushed and boarded the bus. Four passengers survived, 2 of whom had been injured by the gunmen.
  • Scorpions Pass (Hebrew: Ma'ale 'Akrabim) is a narrow, winding grade on the old road connecting Eilat and Beersheba, just south of Makhtesh Katan, and roughly 60 miles south of Beersheba. The pass was on the primary route between Eilat and central Israel in 1954. The 1948 Arab-Israeli war ended with the signing of several armistice agreements between Israel and her neighboring Arab states, but border clashes began almost immediately after the signing agreements.
  • On the night of 16 March, a bus operated by the Egged Israel Transport Cooperative Society on an unscheduled journey carrying 14 passengers made its way from Eilat to Tel Aviv. As it was climbing up the steep grade, it was ambushed by gunmen who shot and killed the driver as well as passengers who tried to escape; they then proceeded to board the bus and shoot and pilfer from the remaining passengers. The male driver, eight male passengers and two female passengers were killed. The four survivors were a five-year-old girl, Miri Firstenberg, after one of the soldiers riding the bus defended her with his body, two Israeli soldiers and a woman.
HALALEI MA´ARACHOT ISRAEL



Israelilainen Eggedin bussi joutui väijytykseen Juudan sukukunnan alueen Skorppionikukkulan jyrkillä rinteillä yösydännä 16-17.3. 1954. Yksitoista matkustajaa  sai luodeista surmansa;  neljä matkustajaa säilyi hengissä, kaksi heistä luodeista vahingoittuneena.
SKORPIONISOLA ( Ruotsiksi Skorpionhöjden) on kapea, jyrkkä kalteva  vanha tie, joka yhdistää eilatin ja beersheban aivan Maktesh katan-  pienen kraterin eteläpuolella ( noin 60 mailia Beershebasta) . Vuonna 1954 oli tämä sola pääreittiä Eilatin ja keski-Israelin välillä. Vuoden 1948 arabien ja israelilaisten välinen sota oli päättynyt usean  aseellisen osapuolen sopimuksella  Israelin ja sitä ympäröivien  arabi-naapurivaltioiden  kesken, mutta miltei välittömästi sopimuksien allekirjoituksen jälkeen  alkoivat rajakahakat.
16.3. 1954 oli Eggedin bussi  vakiovuorosta poikkeavalla ajalla kuljettamassa 14 matkustajaa Eilatista Tel-Aviviin.Kun se oli nousemassa jyrkkää kaltevaa tietä, väijytyksessä ollut  ampuja ampui ja surmasi ajajan ja matkustajat , jotka koettivat paeta. Miesajaja, kahdeksan miespuolista matkustajaa ja kaksi naismatkustajaa sai surmansa. neljä eloonjäänyttä olivat eräs 5-vuotias tyttö, Miri Firstenberg,sillä  yksi bussissa matkustanut sotilas suojasi  häntä  omalla kehollaan, sekä kaksi sotilasta ja yksi nainen.

Miten Israel muistaa terrorinuhrien ja  orpojensa kohtaloa?
 HALALEI MA´ARACHOT ISRAEL
2018  On Tuesday, the eve of the Day of Remembrance for the Fallen Soldiers of Israel and Victims of Terrorism, hundreds of members of bereaved families attended the annual ”Songs in Their Memory” event in the Knesset`s Chagall Hall.

The main national event on the eve of the Day of Remembrance was held in the presence of President Reuven Rivlin and Prime Minister MK Benjamin Netanyahu, with the participation of Speaker of the Knesset MK Yuli Yoel Edelstein, Supreme Court President Esther Hayut, Defense Minister Avigdor Liberman, Minister of Labor, Social Affairs and Social Services Haim Katz, Police Commissioner Roni Alsheikh, Deputy IDF Chief of Staff Maj.-Gen. Aviv Kochavi, Prison Service Commissioner Ofra Klinger and Mossad Director Yossi Cohen, all of whom recited poems in memory of fallen soldiers.


 https://m.knesset.gov.il/EN/News/PressReleases/pages/Pr13843_pg.aspx

 - The story of Miri Firstenberg, who survived the Ma`ale Akrabim massacre on March 17, 1954. Miri`s parents were among the 11 people who were murdered when terrorists ambushed and boarded a passenger bus travelling from Eilat to Tel Aviv. Miri, who was five years old at the time of the attack, was saved by a soldier who defended her with his body and was killed in the process. Her brother, who was nine, was shot, and he spent 32 years in a state of paralysis and partial recognition until he died. Miri`s granddaughter Tomer, a commander at the Bahad 1 officers` training base, will attend the event.

Israelin normaaleista puroista ja virroista (Brandon Marlon blogista 2017 tekstiä)

Näistä on dokumenttia Raamatussa.  Nykyaikana  naapurvaltiot  vain siirtelevät jokien  virtausta omille puolilleen, jopa  Suolameren vedetkin aiotaan  siilata Jordanian puolella lähiaikoina, osittain saadaan myös juomakelpoistakin desalinoitua ehkä esiin.   Niissähän vesissä  on suunnaton määrä arvometalleja  vuosituhansien  konsentroitumisen seurauksena.  Jordania aikoo kaivaa Arnonin kohdalta    kanavan Punaisenmeren ja Suolameren välille kokonaan Jordanian puolella.  Arabimaat estävät että Kuollutmeri asetettaisiin Unescon  maailmanperinnöksi, sillä silloin sitä ei saisi ryöstää teollisuudelle  tekemällä   yksityisten omia päätöksiä.   Israelin ratkaisuja Suolameren kuivumiseen  ei hyväksytty.
Eihän edes Genesaretia pidetä  mitenkään  "vesialtaaksi"kelpaavana , vaan jordanialaiset ja syyrialaiset  tehneet patoaltaita, joissa ei ole puhdistusvirtausta.  Kineretiin ja  Jordanin vesistöalueeseen  laskeva vesimäärä on tyrehdytetty 90-prosenttisesti  tukkimalla kaikki  idästä tulevat   laskujoet padoilla  ja kierrättämällä Hatsbani toiseen suuntaan ja nyt koetetaan saada kaapattua Banias uusilla  valheilla  puhumalla Golanin okkupaatiosta ja palauttamisesta Syyrialle. Kyse on  Israelin vesivarojen edelleen tyrehdyttämisestä.   Arabiliiga koettaa johtaa Baniaksen Golanin takaa  kierrättämällä- ehkä niitä vuoritunneleita tehdäänkin jo silläkin puolen Golania ja hermonia, eikä vain Libanon ole rei-itetty.  Muutetaan  normaalia vedenjakajaa , vaikka on olemassa  vesistöalueita ikivanhoista ajoista, ja ne kattavat itse asiassa alunperin kaiken Arabian niemimaan ja jos niitä  noudatettaisiin, voitaisiin elvyttää  vedensaanti.

Jordanin lähteiden käntö Syyriaan ja muille kuin Israelille on ollut  1964 aikoihin alkusuunnitelma josta  esim 1967-sotakin virisi.

Tänä vuonna  on kyllä sateista tullu korvausvettä Kinneretiin ja Aravaan.
Löysin netistä kertomuksen  Israelin virroista: etsin siihen viiteet raamatusta , jos vain löydän.

https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/rivers-of-israel/

  1. Hermon – A stream descending from Mount Hermon through the conjunction of the Golan Heights and the Hula Valley, the Hermon courses for over 2 miles along a steep basalt gorge and through the ancient city of Paneas (Caesarea Philippi) southward to the Banias waterfall, the most powerful in Israel, and beyond. The perennial stream is sourced from the rain and snowmelt that fosters springs at the foot of the Paneas cave, and in turn supplies the Jordan River with most of its water.
  2. Snir (Hatzbani) – The longest tributary of the Jordan River, the perennial Snir stream flows through a forest of plane trees and yellowish travertine rock walls, and is subject to annual flooding. Descending from the western slope of Mount Hermon, Snir (another biblical name for Mount Hermon) runs for over 37 miles (mostly in Lebanon, where it bypasses the Druze town of Hatzbaya, hence its Arabic name Hatzbani), and for over 3 miles through an Israeli nature reserve in the Galilean panhandle (the “Finger of Galilee”). Denizens of the stream include otters, porcupines, wild boars, mongooses, badgers, river crabs, dragonflies, and damselflies.
  3.  Dan – The largest tributary of the Jordan River, rising from a plentiful karstic spring in the ancient Israelite city of Dan (Tel Dan), formerly known as Laish/Leshem. Rainwater and snowmelt trickling down from Mount Hermon feed the stream, which courses for about 12 miles through a shady wetland forest of laurel and ash trees and plants such as buckthorn and marsh fern. The vicinity, within the Galilean panhandle (the “Finger of Galilee”), is also home to Near Eastern fire salamanders, otters, wild boars, river crabs, dragonflies, and damselflies. The cool stream features several rivulets that combine with the Hermon and Snir streams, and is spanned by several wooden bridges. Kibbutz Dan and Kibbutz Dafna are nearby.
  4.  Iyyon (Ayun) – A stream originating in Lebanon and flowing through a gorge in the Galilean panhandle (the “Finger of Galilee”) from Iyyon (Ayun) Valley to Hula Valley, bypassing en route the ancient ruins of Avel Beit Ma’akhah and the modern town of Metulla, the northernmost in the State of Israel. In his war against King Baasha of Israel, King Asa of Judah bribed King Ben-Hadad of Aram with silver and gold to make war on Baasha in the north; Ben-Hadad obliged and attacked the northern sites of Iyyon, Dan, Avel Beit Ma’akhah, etc. During the reign of King Pekah of Israel, Emperor Tiglat-Pileser III of Assyria conquered Iyyon, Avel Beit Ma’akhah, Hatzor, and other northern towns in the Naphtali tribal territory, exiling their inhabitants to Assyria. The scenic stream includes four waterfalls: Tanur, Tahana, Iyyon, and Eshed. In the Talmud, the stream and its gorge are referred to in Aramaic as “Nekuvta D’Iyyon”.-- ( -II Kn. 16: 4. Benhadadin sotaoukkojen päälliköt valtasivat Iijonin, Daanin ja Aabel-Maimin sekä kaikki Naftalin kaupunkien varastohuoneet) (Jesaja 7:23) 
  5. Meshushim – A perennial stream almost 22 miles in length (the longest in the Golan), coursing through a deep basalt canyon within the Yehudiya Forest amid the central Golan Heights. The stream originates at Mount Avital and terminates in Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee), where it forms an estuary lagoon. The stream leads to the sizable Meshushim pool surrounded by a cliff of hexagonal basalt pillars. The area is replete with oak, eucalyptus, mastic, styrax, jujube, and almond trees, and is also noted for its population of wild boars, eagles, vultures, kestrels, buzzards, mountain gazelles, and hyraxes, among other fauna. The Meshushim, one of four streams in the Yehudiya Forest (the others being Zavitan, Yehudiya, and Daliyot) flows near the ancient Jewish town of Gamla, a prominent mountain site famous for its dramatic battle and mass suicide during the Great Revolt (66 -73 CE) against the Romans, and the ancient Jewish village of Yehudiya, whose ruined synagogues remain in evidence
  6.  Kziv – A perennial stream flowing for over 12 miles through Upper Galilee from Mount Meron to Akhziv, and the longest watercourse in Galilee. The ruined Crusader fortress of Montfort, erstwhile stronghold of Teutonic knights, perches on a spur overlooking the Kziv. The stream features several springs along its course. 
  7. Kishon – A river originating south of the Gilboa mountain range and flowing northwestward through the Jezreel Valley and north of the Carmel mountain range, reaching its outlet, the Mediterranean Sea, just north of Haifa. The river extends for over 43 miles. In Joshua 19:11, it is referred to as “the river before Yokne’am”; in Judges 5: 19- 21) , for its role in the triumph of Devorah and her general Barak against King Yavin and his general Sisera, it is celebrated thusly: “Kings came; they fought. Yes, the kings of Canaan fought at Ta’anakh, by the waters of Megiddo; but they took no spoil of silver. They fought from heaven, the stars in their courses; yes, they fought against Sisera. The Kishon River swept them away, that ancient river, the Kishon River. O my soul, march on with strength!” The river is also cited in Psalms (Ps.83:10). The prophet Elijah subsequently had the 450 defeated prophets of Baal seized and taken down from the Carmel range to the Kishon, where they were slain with the sword (I Kn.18: 40) . In winter the Kishon is often flooded, rendering its fords impassable. In the modern era, the mouth of the river was deepened and developed to establish an auxiliary port near Haifa Bay. In recent decades the river was chemically polluted by industrial effluents and municipal wastewater, but a major cleanup was lately undertaken 
8,,,,Taninim – A sparkling coastal stream running for almost 16 miles between the Menasheh Heights of the Carmel mountain range and the Mediterranean Sea, and named after the former reptile residents (in Hebrew, taninim = crocodiles) of the proximate Kebara swamp. The stream is ornamented with yellow water lilies on its surface and contains fish such as tilapia, catfish, and gray mullet, as well as Caspian turtles below its surface. An extant dam from the late Roman or early Byzantine period was built to raise the stream’s water level so that it could be channeled southward to Caesarea Maritima, which was built by King Herod the Great of Judaea and which served as the Roman administrative capital in the Land of Israel. A by-product of the dam was a small lake. Taninim is regarded as the cleanest coastal watercourse in Israel, and it delimits the southern extent of the Hof HaCarmel (Carmel Coastal Plain). The ancient remnants of a city dating from the Persian or Hellenistic eras and once known as Crocodilopolis (Tel Taninim) rest along the confluence of the stream and the sea.
    9... Amud – A stream in eastern Galilee that flows southward for over 15 miles and descends into Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee) at Ginnosar Valley. The watercourse is named after an isolated limestone pillar (in  Hebrew, amud = pillar) about 22 yards tall that stands upright along the streambed, beside which rises the seasonal spring Ein Amud. Amud is especially known for its adjacent caves (Dovecote, Amud, Skull/Zuttiyeh, Amira), all of which have been excavated, and which were found to contain the remains of Neanderthals and other prehistoric humans, as well as for its cliff-dwelling vultures, eagles, kestrels, falcons, and buzzards. In the stream swim Levantine scraper fish, and its springs feature river crabs, dragonflies, and damselflies. Along the stream can be found lush riparian vegetation and a diverse array of trees: oak, terebinth, carob, styrax, mastic, almond, walnut, jujube, plane, willow, and Eastern strawberry. Nearby are the remnants of a pagan temple on Mount Mizpeh HaYamim dating from the Hellenistic era, and of the Jewish village Kfar Hananiah dating from the Hasmonean era, as well as the eastern slopes of Mount Meron, on which the Mishnaic sages Shimon bar Yohai and his son Eleazar ben Shimon are entombed. Alongside the stream are the ruins of more than two dozen flour and fulling mills dating from the 1500s, attesting to early modern Tzfat’s wool industry, introduced by Sephardic Jewish exiles post-Spanish expulsion (1492 CE). The National Water Carrier traverses Amud stream in a camouflaged siphon pipe
    10---Alexander – A coastal flood stream in the Sharon Plain, flowing for almost 20 miles from the western slopes of Samaria westward then northwestward through the Hefer Valley until reaching the Mediterranean Sea, with its estuary between Beit Yannai beach and Mikhmoret. The stream channels through eucalyptus trees, reeds, bulrushes, and brambles, and is home to an abundance of giant soft-shelled turtles, as well as specimens of tilapia, catfish, mullet, and river eel. Its riverbanks feature rich riparian wildlife, including green sea turtles, loggerhead sea turtles, coypus, and mongooses. The terrain near the mouth of the stream consists of kurkar (coastal limestone) ridges and sand dunes. Close by lie the remnants of a structure dating to the late 1800s, Horvat Samara. In June 1948, the Etzel vessel Altalena anchored at a nearby port before sailing onward to Tel Aviv.
    11.... Kanah (Qana) – A seasonal stream and the Yarkon River’s northernmost tributary, rising from the vicinity of Mount Gerizim in Samaria and flowing southwestward into the Sharon Plain. The Kanah has its own tributary, Nahal Hadar, which courses east and south of the mound of Tel Qana, where ancient winepresses have been excavated. The Kanah served as the boundary between the tribal territories of western Menasheh to the north and Ephraim to the south (Joshua 16: 8)(Joshua 17: 7. Today the stream bypasses numerous communities including Karnei Shomron, Kfar Saba, and Hod HaSharon.

    12...Yarkon – A perennial river rising from springs proximate to Tel Aphek (Antipatris) and Rosh HaAyin and winding for 17 miles westward till it spills into the Mediterranean Sea in northern Tel Aviv. Its name is derived from its greenish hue (in Hebrew, yarok = green; the name Aphek, incidentally, derives from the Akkadian word Aphek/Aphekum, meaning springs, whence the Hebrew word Apheek, meaning riverbed/streambed). The river’s source is by the narrow Aphek Passage, through which the ancient Via Maris road passed so as to circumvent the quondam marshes. The Yarkon marks the boundary between the northern section of the Coastal Plain (i.e. the Sharon Plain) and the Coastal Plain’s lowlands to the south. It receives a number of tributaries from north and south. The stream’s water sometimes runs red due to its  reddish hamra soil, and according to the Mishnah, where it is referred to as mei pugah, its water was deemed unfit for ritual service in the Temple because it was marshy. The modern Yarkon Park, through which the stream courses, is replete with oak, carob, and eucalyptus trees. Yellow water lilies grow in the pond near the stream’s source, and silver Yarkon bream swim in the stream and in a discrete pool near its spring. Other denizens of the stream include Nile soft-shelled turtles, tilapias, catfish, mosquito fish, coypus, terrapins, mallards, moorhens, swamp cats, and porcupines. Vestiges of Canaanite palaces and a Roman odeon (music theater) are found at Tel Aphek, and a 16th century Turkish fortress, Pinar Basha, crowns Tel Aphek near the stream. In the modern era, cities that have cropped up in the vicinity include Petah Tikvah, Bnei Brak, Ramat Gan, and Tel Aviv. General Edmund Allenby crossed the stream with his British army during his campaign against the Ottoman Turks in 1917. From the 1950s, the stream became increasingly polluted, but hydrological rehabilitation efforts have greatly improved the water quality in recent years. Since 1955, much of the Yarkon’s headwaters have been diverted via the National Water Carrier to the Negev Desert for irrigation purposes.
    13....Sorek – A stream flowing through the Sorek Valley in the tribal territory of Judah, where the Israelite judge Samson encountered the duplicitous Philistiness, Delilah. Several of its tributaries feature waterfalls. The Sorek served as the boundary between the original (southwestern) tribal territory of Dan and Philistia, and the Philistine city of Ekron and the Israelite city of Beit Shemesh were located proximate to the stream. Today the old Jerusalem-Tel Aviv railway parallels the watercourse.

    14...Kisalon – A Judean river flowing for over 12 miles through the Jerusalem hills from Mount Adar to the outskirts of Beit Shemesh in the Sorek Valley. The Kisalon features the picturesque spring of Ein Hemed (Aqua Bella), where a Crusader farm house dating from the 1100s and probably belonging to the Knights Hospitaler is preserved. Today the Kisalon bypasses Martyrs’ Forest, whose 6 million trees commemorate the Jewish victims of the Shoah.

    (15) Gerar – A brook that rises from the southwest foothills of the Judean hills and courses westward through rich pastoral country in the northwestern Negev Desert and past several ancient Egyptian archeological sites dating from the Bronze Age. During the subsequent Iron Age, the Gerar brook and the royal city of the same name were under Philistine control. The Philistine ruler, King Avimelekh of Gerar, took the matriarch Sarah captive when Abraham had to sojourn in Gerar for a time due to famine (Genesis 20:1); later Isaac likewise sojourned in Gerar for identical reasons, and soon dwelt in the river valley and unstopped the wells of his father Abraham that the Philistines had since filled up with earth (Genesis 26:18-22). Here Isaac’s servants dug two new wells of living water, called Esek and Sitnah, of which the Philistines contested ownership, then a third well called Rehovot that went uncontested. The brook also flowed near the Philistine fortress of Ziklag, where David and his followers lived for a period  ( I Sam. 27: 6) while hunted by an unstable King Saul of Israel. Thereafter King Asa of Judah battled against Zerah the Ethiopian and his vast army and hundreds of chariots, pursuing the fleeing Ethiopians from Mareshah to Gerar, routing them and despoiling the local towns (II Chr. 14: 13-14). In a hasty treaty between the Seleucid (Syrian-Greek) ruler Emperor Antiochus V Eupator (and his regent Lysias) and the Hasmonean hero Judah Maccabee, Gerar served as the southern border of the coastal region under Seleucid control. The city of Gerar has been identified with several ruins, perhaps most convincingly with the large mound known as Tel Haror/Tel Abu Hurayra. Today the Gerar brook bypasses the Bedouin town of Rahat, as well as the town of Netivot and village of Re’im.
    (16)  Besor – The largest stream in the northern Negev Desert, extending for almost 50 miles from Mount Boker across the Agur-Halutza sand dunes and the Gaza Strip to the Mediterranean Sea. In his pursuit of the Amalekites, who had attacked and burnt his haven of Ziklag, David left behind at the brook 200 of his 600 men, who safeguarded their possessions while the other 400 ventured off to war.(I Sam. 30:9-10,21) The Besor has numerous tributaries and floods yearly after heavy rains.
    17... Jordan (Yarden) – The primary watercourse in the Land of Israel, formed by the confluence of a trio of headwater streams (Snir/Hatzbani, Dan, Banias) at the base of Mount Hermon. The Jordan (“the descender” or “descending from Dan”) extends for about 225 miles southward through Lakelet Hula and Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee) and continues descending southward along a significant gradient until as a delta it empties into the north shore of the Dead Sea. Declining some 3,000 feet from its northern source to its southern mouth, the Jordan is shallow in summertime and profound in wintertime. Its usually swift current ferries considerable silt, and the salinity of its water increases as it nears the Dead Sea. Coursing through luxuriant vegetation, the river features some 31 fords (kahlaamo) , and possesses the lowest elevation of any river in the world. In the period of the conquest and resettlement of the Land of Israel, the Israelites followed Joshua across the Jordan near Jericho. When the men of Reuven, Gad, and eastern Menasheh departed from the rest of the Israelite tribes, they paused while still on the western riverbank of the Jordan and erected a large altar to serve as a symbolic “witness” attesting to the fact that they, too, had a share in the God of Israel.(Joshua 22:10 -34) The Jordan was the tribal border between eastern Menasheh, Gad, and Reuven to the east (in Transjordania) and Naphtali, Issachar, western Menasheh, Ephraim, and Benjamin to the west (in Cisjordania). In the period of the Judges, Gideon adjured the Ephraimites to capture the lower fords to prevent the Midianites and their chieftains Orev and Ze’ev from fording the Jordan, and later Yiftah and the Gileadites secured the lower fords and slew 42,000 Ephraimites in battle after the Ammonites had been defeated (Judges 12)  . In time King Solomon of Israel established his brass-foundries in the thick clay by the Jordan’s riverbanks between Sukkot and Tzartan (I Kn. 7: 46). The river’s water was deemed unfit for ritual use in the Temple due to its impurity. The prophets Elijah and Elisha both forded the Jordan dry-shod after striking it with Elijah’s rolled-up cloak, thereby dividing it. (II Kn. 2:8) Elisha performed further riverine miracles when he directed the disease-ridden Aramean general Na’aman to immerse himself seven times in the Jordan’s waters, which healed Na’aman’s skin (II Kn. 5: 10, 14) , and when he caused an iron axe blade to float up from the Jordan’s depths after one of his prophetic disciples had inadvertently dropped it into the river (II. Kn. 6 3-7). In the Hasmonean era, Judah Maccabee and Jonathan Maccabee crossed the Jordan prior to their rescue campaign in Gilead; later, after Judah’s death, Jonathan Maccabee, Shimon Maccabee, and their force of Maccabean freedom fighters bivouacked by the marshes and thickets of the Jordan during their campaign against the formidable Seleucid (Syrian-Greek) general Bacchides, at one point swimming across the river after routing the enemy. Jesus of Nazareth was baptized in the river by his relative John. In the modern era, half a dozen bridges were erected to span the river, including: Arik Bridge, between Galilee and the Golan Heights; Jordan River Crossing/Sheikh Hussein Bridge, a border crossing, between Galilee and Jordan; Gesher Adam/Damiya Bridge, between Samaria and Jordan; and Allenby/King Hussein Bridge, another border crossing, between Judea and Jordan. The malign attempt by Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan to divert the river’s headwaters in 1965 was a contributing factor to the ensuing Six-Day War of 1967. Immortalized in the Tanakh, the Jordan has been celebrated further in many spiritual hymns and folk songs. Today the river is used for irrigation in order to grow fruits and vegetables and for recreational rafting, and remains revered by Christians as a baptismal site.
    (18)  Yarmuk – The largest tributary of the Jordan River, with its sources amid a lava plateau in the Golan Heights. The narrow and shallow Yarmuk flows with many convolutions southwestward, widening and deepening as it joins the Jordan several miles south of Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee). The river has its own tributaries, which feature numerous waterfalls. The Yarmuk served as the northern boundary of the Transjordanian geographical region of Gilead. According to the Mishnah, its water was deemed unfit for ritual use because it was “mixed”, which the medieval sage Eshtori HaParhi explained meant blended with the waters of Hamat Gader (Gadara), whose hot springs the Yarmuk skirts. In the Talmud, the sage Johanan bar Nappaha asserts that the Yarmuk is second only to the Jordan (in volume) among Israel’s rivers. In 636 CE, the Battle of Yarmuk River proved to be a decisive victory for the Muslim Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid against Theodorus Trithurius and the Byzantine Christians, whose Armenian and Christian Arab allies had deserted them. In 1946, during Operation Markolet (a.k.a. “The Night of the Bridges”), the Haganah bombed the Hejaz Railway bridge spanning the Yarmuk. For most of its length (approx. 50 miles) it serves as the northeastern border between Israel and Jordan.
     (19) Kireet (Cherith) – An eastern tributary of the Jordan River where Elijah the prophet was divinely directed to hide and dwell, there to be sustained by the brook’s water and fed by its ravens who brought him bread and meat morning and evening. When the brook dried up during the drought which he had foretold, Elijah was directed to move on to be sustained by the widow of Tzarfat.(I Kn. 17: 3-7; 8-10).
    (20) Yabok (Jabbok) – The second-largest tributary of the Jordan River, joining the latter between Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee) and the Dead Sea. Stretching some 62 miles, the Yabok emanates from a spring proximate to Rabat-Ammon and divides mountainous Gilead into two. After departing Haran, the patriarch Jacob forded the Yabok en route to his long-awaited yet dreaded reunion with his brother Esav. (Genesis 32; 22-24, 30).
    He conveyed his household and their possessions across the Yabok, and that night at the site known thereafter as Penuel (Peniel), a future capital of the Kingdom of Israel, he wrestled with a mysterious figure until daybreak. The Yabok served as the Ammonite-Amorite frontier—the dominion of the Amorite king Sihon extended between the Yabok and Arnon rivers— ( Joshua 12: 1-6)until the Amorites were defeated by Moses and the Israelites in the preliminary stages of the conquest and resettlement of Canaan.(Numeri 32:39) It subsequently served as the boundary between the Israelite tribes of Reuven and Gad to the south and Ammon to the north, and coursed by the Israelite capitals of Penuel and Mahanaim, as well as the town of Sukkot. ( During the Hellenistic era, the Yabok also functioned as the border of the domain of a prominent Jewish clan, the Tobiads. Thereafter the Romans erected a bridge spanning the Yabok. In Arabic the Yabok is called the Zarqa.
    (21) Heshbon – An intermittent stream in Transjordania descending westward from the vicinity of the town of Heshbon in the heights of Moab through a verdant ribbon toward the longer watercourse Wadi al-Kafrein, which it joins in the Jordan River Valley north of the Dead Sea. The stream served as the boundary between the tribal territories of Gad to the north and Reuven to the south, and as the southern boundary of the geographical region Gilead. The oft-contested town of Heshbon first belonged to Moab, then served as the capital of King Sihon of the Amorites, then was allotted by Moses to the tribal territory of Reuven (Joshua 13:17) , then became a Levitical city (Joshua 21:39)  in the tribal territory of Gad (Joshua 13: 26) (Deuteronomium 3: 16-20) , then was reclaimed by King Mesha of Moab, then was reconquered by the Hasmonean ruler King Yannai Alexander of Judea, then became a military veterans’ colony in Perea (southern Gilead and the Mishor) under King Herod the Great. In the Songs of Songs, the male persona romanticizes his beloved with the description, “your eyes [are] like the pools in Heshbon(Song of songs 6: 4) ”. Ruins of a reservoir are extant at the town.(Esaiah 15: 4)
    (22)  Arnon – The meandering Arnon flows northward then westward through limestone hills and a steep gorge into the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, opposite Ein Gedi. It extends for approximately 50 miles, is alternately broad and narrow, and deepens considerably (down to about 10 feet) during winter. It served as the boundary between the Amorites in the north and the Moabites in the south; after the Israelite conquest, it similarly divided the tribe of Reuven to the north and Moab to the south. King Mesha of Moab mentions the Arnon, and the roads (or fords) across it that he constructed, in his famous stele. The Arnon’s fords were indeed a critical link along the King’s Highway that traversed Transjordania from Eilat to Damascus. The river figures in the Tanakh when it cites “the lords of Arnon’s heights”, when the prophet Isaiah avers that the “daughters of Moab at the fords of the Arnon are like fluttering birds pushed from the nest” (Esaiah 16: 2) (, and when the prophet Jeremiah relates the divine prophecy declaring: “Proclaim it by the Arnon that Moab has been laid waste”. (Jer. 48_20) The largest settlement in the vicinity in ancient times was the city of Aroer )Joshua 13: 16) (Deuteronomium 2:36; 3:12).  . In the Hasmonean era, the region was claimed by Johanan Hyrcanus and his son King Yannai Alexander, with the Arnon again serving as the boundary between the Judean kingdom to the north and Nabatea to the south. In the Roman era, a legion was stationed by the Arnon to secure the Eilat-Bozrah road crossing it. The Sages instituted a special blessing (“Blessed be He who performed miracles for our forefathers at this place.”) upon seeing the Arnon in commemoration of a legendary miracle that occurred when the Ark of the Covenant caused the ambuscading Amorites to be crushed in their cavernous hideouts, allowing the Israelites to proceed unmolested northward across the mountains of Gilead. The Arnon also became renowned for its plentiful fish and diverse wildlife.
    (23) Zered – A river flowing northwestward through a deep rift into the south shore of the Dead Sea. The Zered extends for some 28 miles and served as the border between Moab to the north and Edom to the south, and was a camping site of the Israelites in their approach to the Promised Land. The river features on the Madaba Map south of Kerak.(Deuteronomium 2: 13)
    (24)  Ze’elim – Named after its shady lotus trees, the Tze’elim stream courses from the Hebron hills through the Judean Desert toward the Dead Sea between Ein Gedi and Masada. The stream bypasses a trio of caves and four pools of water.
    (25) Tzin-The largest seasonal stream in the Negev Desert, rising in the northwest of the erosion cirque Makhtesh Ramon and flowing northward then eastward for almost 75 miles through an arid limestone landscape. The watercourse meanders south of Kibbutz Sde Boker through the narrow Ein Avdat canyon, which features springs, waterfalls, and pools, as well as poplar trees and saltbush shrubs. Ibexes forage for provender in the area, and birds of prey (eagles, hawks, vultures) and bulbul songbirds hunt and swoop overhead. The wilderness of Tzin was where the Israelite spies began their reconnaissance mission in Canaan; where the Israelites encamped after Etzion-Gever (near Eilat); where Miriam died ( Numeri 20: 1) and was buried; where at Kadesh Moses twice struck the rock he was divinely instructed to speak to, which gushed forth the water of Meribah ( Numeri 20: 9-13); and where the southern border of the Promised Land traversed between Ma’aleh Akrabbim and Kadesh Barnea. (Numeri 20: 22). Today the stream is known for its surging flash floods after heavy rainfall in winter, and the area is popular among hikers.
    (Numeri 21: 10-25)
    (26)Paran – Coursing for over 93 miles through the Negev Desert and Sinai Peninsula, the Paran stream is the widest and third longest watercourse in Israel. The Paran wilderness is traversed by Wadi el-Arish’s eastern affluents. This beige desert landscape, southwest of the Tzin river valley and north of the Gulf of Eilat and the Red Sea, was where King Chedarlaomer of Elam and his royal alliance assailed the Horites. Abraham’s concubine Hagar was dispatched from Be’ersheva to Paran with her son Ishmael, who in this locus became an archer and married an Egyptian wife. During their wilderness wanderings, the Israelites traveled from the Sinai Desert and via Hatzerot encamped at Paran. ( Numeri 13:1). Moses dispatched the 12 Israelite spies into Canaan from Paran ( Numeri 13: 3-34) , to which they returned after reconnoitering for 40 days, and later he addressed the people “between Paran and Tophel and Lavan and Hatzerot and Di Zahav” (Deuteronomium 1:1). Later the fugitive David, having effected a temporary truce with King Saul of Israel, retreated to Paran after the death of the prophet Samuel ( I Sam. 25: 1) . Thereafter the young royal scion of Edom, Hadad, fled King David and Yoav his general, escaping to Midian then crossing Paran and collecting local men there to join them in their flight to Egypt. In the Roman era, a road traversed the area. Today the stream is known for its flash floods in wintertime, and the surrounding desert for its recently introduced population of Arabian oryxes.

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    Rivers of Israel






    The Land of Israel’s numerous rivers sustain life—human, animal, and plant—as they channel through valleys, mountain ranges, and deserts into larger watercourses, lakes, or the sea. The main river in Israel is the famed Jordan, into which many important headwaters and tributaries flow. Most of Israel’s watercourses are perennial or intermittent streams with considerably less volume output in seasons other than winter.
    From the outset of ancient Near Eastern civilization, rivers served as ready-made borders dividing nations, tribes, and clans, and many important cities, towns, and villages developed alongside them. Good rivers made good neighbors. Such definitional waters were to be shared, and egregious deviations from this principle were grounds for war. Key battles, unsurprisingly, occurred at various rivers, and fording a river signaled the crossing of a threshold, perhaps even a point of no return.
    Yet the rivers of Israel played a prominent part as a precious resource not only in the lives and times of the Israelites and their myriad neighbors, but in the rich ecology and biodiversity of the country. Here is a précis offering a glimpse at the most geographically and historically significant rivers in Israel:
    1. Hermon – A stream descending from Mount Hermon through the conjunction of the Golan Heights and the Hula Valley, the Hermon courses for over 2 miles along a steep basalt gorge and through the ancient city of Paneas (Caesarea Philippi) southward to the Banias waterfall, the most powerful in Israel, and beyond. The perennial stream is sourced from the rain and snowmelt that fosters springs at the foot of the Paneas cave, and in turn supplies the Jordan River with most of its water.
    2. Snir (Hatzbani) – The longest tributary of the Jordan River, the perennial Snir stream flows through a forest of plane trees and yellowish travertine rock walls, and is subject to annual flooding. Descending from the western slope of Mount Hermon, Snir (another biblical name for Mount Hermon) runs for over 37 miles (mostly in Lebanon, where it bypasses the Druze town of Hatzbaya, hence its Arabic name Hatzbani), and for over 3 miles through an Israeli nature reserve in the Galilean panhandle (the “Finger of Galilee”). Denizens of the stream include otters, porcupines, wild boars, mongooses, badgers, river crabs, dragonflies, and damselflies.
    3. Dan – The largest tributary of the Jordan River, rising from a plentiful karstic spring in the ancient Israelite city of Dan (Tel Dan), formerly known as Laish/Leshem. Rainwater and snowmelt trickling down from Mount Hermon feed the stream, which courses for about 12 miles through a shady wetland forest of laurel and ash trees and plants such as buckthorn and marsh fern. The vicinity, within the Galilean panhandle (the “Finger of Galilee”), is also home to Near Eastern fire salamanders, otters, wild boars, river crabs, dragonflies, and damselflies. The cool stream features several rivulets that combine with the Hermon and Snir streams, and is spanned by several wooden bridges. Kibbutz Dan and Kibbutz Dafna are nearby.
    4. Iyyon (Ayun) – A stream originating in Lebanon and flowing through a gorge in the Galilean panhandle (the “Finger of Galilee”) from Iyyon (Ayun) Valley to Hula Valley, bypassing en route the ancient ruins of Avel Beit Ma’akhah and the modern town of Metulla, the northernmost in the State of Israel. In his war against King Baasha of Israel, King Asa of Judah bribed King Ben-Hadad of Aram with silver and gold to make war on Baasha in the north; Ben-Hadad obliged and attacked the northern sites of Iyyon, Dan, Avel Beit Ma’akhah, etc. During the reign of King Pekah of Israel, Emperor Tiglat-Pileser III of Assyria conquered Iyyon, Avel Beit Ma’akhah, Hatzor, and other northern towns in the Naphtali tribal territory, exiling their inhabitants to Assyria. The scenic stream includes four waterfalls: Tanur, Tahana, Iyyon, and Eshed. In the Talmud, the stream and its gorge are referred to in Aramaic as “Nekuvta D’Iyyon”.
    5. Meshushim – A perennial stream almost 22 miles in length (the longest in the Golan), coursing through a deep basalt canyon within the Yehudiya Forest amid the central Golan Heights. The stream originates at Mount Avital and terminates in Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee), where it forms an estuary lagoon. The stream leads to the sizable Meshushim pool surrounded by a cliff of hexagonal basalt pillars. The area is replete with oak, eucalyptus, mastic, styrax, jujube, and almond trees, and is also noted for its population of wild boars, eagles, vultures, kestrels, buzzards, mountain gazelles, and hyraxes, among other fauna. The Meshushim, one of four streams in the Yehudiya Forest (the others being Zavitan, Yehudiya, and Daliyot) flows near the ancient Jewish town of Gamla, a prominent mountain site famous for its dramatic battle and mass suicide during the Great Revolt (66-73 CE) against the Romans, and the ancient Jewish village of Yehudiya, whose ruined synagogues remain in evidence.
    6. Kziv – A perennial stream flowing for over 12 miles through Upper Galilee from Mount Meron to Akhziv, and the longest watercourse in Galilee. The ruined Crusader fortress of Montfort, erstwhile stronghold of Teutonic knights, perches on a spur overlooking the Kziv. The stream features several springs along its course.
    7. Kishon – A river originating south of the Gilboa mountain range and flowing northwestward through the Jezreel Valley and north of the Carmel mountain range, reaching its outlet, the Mediterranean Sea, just north of Haifa. The river extends for over 43 miles. In Joshua, it is referred to as “the river before Yokne’am”; in Judges, for its role in the triumph of Devorah and her general Barak against King Yavin and his general Sisera, it is celebrated thusly: “Kings came; they fought. Yes, the kings of Canaan fought at Ta’anakh, by the waters of Megiddo; but they took no spoil of silver. They fought from heaven, the stars in their courses; yes, they fought against Sisera. The Kishon River swept them away, that ancient river, the Kishon River. O my soul, march on with strength!” The river is also cited in Psalms. The prophet Elijah subsequently had the 450 defeated prophets of Baal seized and taken down from the Carmel range to the Kishon, where they were slain with the sword. In winter the Kishon is often flooded, rendering its fords impassable. In the modern era, the mouth of the river was deepened and developed to establish an auxiliary port near Haifa Bay. In recent decades the river was chemically polluted by industrial effluents and municipal wastewater, but a major cleanup was lately undertaken.
    8. Taninim – A sparkling coastal stream running for almost 16 miles between the Menasheh Heights of the Carmel mountain range and the Mediterranean Sea, and named after the former reptile residents (in Hebrew, taninim = crocodiles) of the proximate Kebara swamp. The stream is ornamented with yellow water lilies on its surface and contains fish such as tilapia, catfish, and gray mullet, as well as Caspian turtles below its surface. An extant dam from the late Roman or early Byzantine period was built to raise the stream’s water level so that it could be channeled southward to Caesarea Maritima, which was built by King Herod the Great of Judaea and which served as the Roman administrative capital in the Land of Israel. A by-product of the dam was a small lake. Taninim is regarded as the cleanest coastal watercourse in Israel, and it delimits the southern extent of the Hof HaCarmel (Carmel Coastal Plain). The ancient remnants of a city dating from the Persian or Hellenistic eras and once known as Crocodilopolis (Tel Taninim) rest along the confluence of the stream and the sea.
    9. Amud – A stream in eastern Galilee that flows southward for over 15 miles and descends into Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee) at Ginnosar Valley. The watercourse is named after an isolated limestone pillar (in Hebrew, amud = pillar) about 22 yards tall that stands upright along the streambed, beside which rises the seasonal spring Ein Amud. Amud is especially known for its adjacent caves (Dovecote, Amud, Skull/Zuttiyeh, Amira), all of which have been excavated, and which were found to contain the remains of Neanderthals and other prehistoric humans, as well as for its cliff-dwelling vultures, eagles, kestrels, falcons, and buzzards. In the stream swim Levantine scraper fish, and its springs feature river crabs, dragonflies, and damselflies. Along the stream can be found lush riparian vegetation and a diverse array of trees: oak, terebinth, carob, styrax, mastic, almond, walnut, jujube, plane, willow, and Eastern strawberry. Nearby are the remnants of a pagan temple on Mount Mizpeh HaYamim dating from the Hellenistic era, and of the Jewish village Kfar Hananiah dating from the Hasmonean era, as well as the eastern slopes of Mount Meron, on which the Mishnaic sages Shimon bar Yohai and his son Eleazar ben Shimon are entombed. Alongside the stream are the ruins of more than two dozen flour and fulling mills dating from the 1500s, attesting to early modern Tzfat’s wool industry, introduced by Sephardic Jewish exiles post-Spanish expulsion (1492 CE). The National Water Carrier traverses Amud stream in a camouflaged siphon pipe.
    10. Alexander – A coastal flood stream in the Sharon Plain, flowing for almost 20 miles from the western slopes of Samaria westward then northwestward through the Hefer Valley until reaching the Mediterranean Sea, with its estuary between Beit Yannai beach and Mikhmoret. The stream channels through eucalyptus trees, reeds, bulrushes, and brambles, and is home to an abundance of giant soft-shelled turtles, as well as specimens of tilapia, catfish, mullet, and river eel. Its riverbanks feature rich riparian wildlife, including green sea turtles, loggerhead sea turtles, coypus, and mongooses. The terrain near the mouth of the stream consists of kurkar (coastal limestone) ridges and sand dunes. Close by lie the remnants of a structure dating to the late 1800s, Horvat Samara. In June 1948, the Etzel vessel Altalena anchored at a nearby port before sailing onward to Tel Aviv.
    11. Kanah (Qana) – A seasonal stream and the Yarkon River’s northernmost tributary, rising from the vicinity of Mount Gerizim in Samaria and flowing southwestward into the Sharon Plain. The Kanah has its own tributary, Nahal Hadar, which courses east and south of the mound of Tel Qana, where ancient winepresses have been excavated. The Kanah served as the boundary between the tribal territories of western Menasheh to the north and Ephraim to the south. Today the stream bypasses numerous communities including Karnei Shomron, Kfar Saba, and Hod HaSharon.
    12. Yarkon – A perennial river rising from springs proximate to Tel Aphek (Antipatris) and Rosh HaAyin and winding for 17 miles westward till it spills into the Mediterranean Sea in northern Tel Aviv. Its name is derived from its greenish hue (in Hebrew, yarok = green; the name Aphek, incidentally, derives from the Akkadian word Aphek/Aphekum, meaning springs, whence the Hebrew word Apheek, meaning riverbed/streambed). The river’s source is by the narrow Aphek Passage, through which the ancient Via Maris road passed so as to circumvent the quondam marshes. The Yarkon marks the boundary between the northern section of the Coastal Plain (i.e. the Sharon Plain) and the Coastal Plain’s lowlands to the south. It receives a number of tributaries from north and south. The stream’s water sometimes runs red due to its reddish hamra soil, and according to the Mishnah, where it is referred to as mei pugah, its water was deemed unfit for ritual service in the Temple because it was marshy. The modern Yarkon Park, through which the stream courses, is replete with oak, carob, and eucalyptus trees. Yellow water lilies grow in the pond near the stream’s source, and silver Yarkon bream swim in the stream and in a discrete pool near its spring. Other denizens of the stream include Nile soft-shelled turtles, tilapias, catfish, mosquito fish, coypus, terrapins, mallards, moorhens, swamp cats, and porcupines. Vestiges of Canaanite palaces and a Roman odeon (music theater) are found at Tel Aphek, and a 16th century Turkish fortress, Pinar Basha, crowns Tel Aphek near the stream. In the modern era, cities that have cropped up in the vicinity include Petah Tikvah, Bnei Brak, Ramat Gan, and Tel Aviv. General Edmund Allenby crossed the stream with his British army during his campaign against the Ottoman Turks in 1917. From the 1950s, the stream became increasingly polluted, but hydrological rehabilitation efforts have greatly improved the water quality in recent years. Since 1955, much of the Yarkon’s headwaters have been diverted via the National Water Carrier to the Negev Desert for irrigation purposes.
    13. Sorek – A stream flowing through the Sorek Valley in the tribal territory of Judah, where the Israelite judge Samson encountered the duplicitous Philistiness, Delilah. Several of its tributaries feature waterfalls. The Sorek served as the boundary between the original (southwestern) tribal territory of Dan and Philistia, and the Philistine city of Ekron and the Israelite city of Beit Shemesh were located proximate to the stream. Today the old Jerusalem-Tel Aviv railway parallels the watercourse.
    14. Kisalon – A Judean river flowing for over 12 miles through the Jerusalem hills from Mount Adar to the outskirts of Beit Shemesh in the Sorek Valley. The Kisalon features the picturesque spring of Ein Hemed (Aqua Bella), where a Crusader farm house dating from the 1100s and probably belonging to the Knights Hospitaler is preserved. Today the Kisalon bypasses Martyrs’ Forest, whose 6 million trees commemorate the Jewish victims of the Shoah.
    15. Gerar – A brook that rises from the southwest foothills of the Judean hills and courses westward through rich pastoral country in the northwestern Negev Desert and past several ancient Egyptian archeological sites dating from the Bronze Age. During the subsequent Iron Age, the Gerar brook and the royal city of the same name were under Philistine control. The Philistine ruler, King Avimelekh of Gerar, took the matriarch Sarah captive when Abraham had to sojourn in Gerar for a time due to famine; later Isaac likewise sojourned in Gerar for identical reasons, and soon dwelt in the river valley and unstopped the wells of his father Abraham that the Philistines had since filled up with earth. Here Isaac’s servants dug two new wells of living water, called Esek and Sitnah, of which the Philistines contested ownership, then a third well called Rehovot that went uncontested. The brook also flowed near the Philistine fortress of Ziklag, where David and his followers lived for a period while hunted by an unstable King Saul of Israel. Thereafter King Asa of Judah battled against Zerah the Ethiopian and his vast army and hundreds of chariots, pursuing the fleeing Ethiopians from Mareshah to Gerar, routing them and despoiling the local towns. In a hasty treaty between the Seleucid (Syrian-Greek) ruler Emperor Antiochus V Eupator (and his regent Lysias) and the Hasmonean hero Judah Maccabee, Gerar served as the southern border of the coastal region under Seleucid control. The city of Gerar has been identified with several ruins, perhaps most convincingly with the large mound known as Tel Haror/Tel Abu Hurayra. Today the Gerar brook bypasses the Bedouin town of Rahat, as well as the town of Netivot and village of Re’im.
    16. Besor – The largest stream in the northern Negev Desert, extending for almost 50 miles from Mount Boker across the Agur-Halutza sand dunes and the Gaza Strip to the Mediterranean Sea. In his pursuit of the Amalekites, who had attacked and burnt his haven of Ziklag, David left behind at the brook 200 of his 600 men, who safeguarded their possessions while the other 400 ventured off to war. The Besor has numerous tributaries and floods yearly after heavy rains.
    17. Jordan (Yarden) – The primary watercourse in the Land of Israel, formed by the confluence of a trio of headwater streams (Snir/Hatzbani, Dan, Banias) at the base of Mount Hermon. The Jordan (“the descender” or “descending from Dan”) extends for about 225 miles southward through Lakelet Hula and Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee) and continues descending southward along a significant gradient until as a delta it empties into the north shore of the Dead Sea. Declining some 3,000 feet from its northern source to its southern mouth, the Jordan is shallow in summertime and profound in wintertime. Its usually swift current ferries considerable silt, and the salinity of its water increases as it nears the Dead Sea. Coursing through luxuriant vegetation, the river features some 31 fords, and possesses the lowest elevation of any river in the world. In the period of the conquest and resettlement of the Land of Israel, the Israelites followed Joshua across the Jordan near Jericho. When the men of Reuven, Gad, and eastern Menasheh departed from the rest of the Israelite tribes, they paused while still on the western riverbank of the Jordan and erected a large altar to serve as a symbolic “witness” attesting to the fact that they, too, had a share in the God of Israel. The Jordan was the tribal border between eastern Menasheh, Gad, and Reuven to the east (in Transjordania) and Naphtali, Issachar, western Menasheh, Ephraim, and Benjamin to the west (in Cisjordania). In the period of the Judges, Gidon adjured the Ephraimites to capture the lower fords to prevent the Midianites and their chieftains Orev and Ze’ev from fording the Jordan, and later Yiftah and the Gileadites secured the lower fords and slew 42,000 Ephraimites in battle after the Ammonites had been defeated. In time King Solomon of Israel established his brass-foundries in the thick clay by the Jordan’s riverbanks between Sukkot and Tzartan. The river’s water was deemed unfit for ritual use in the Temple due to its impurity. The prophets Elijah and Elisha both forded the Jordan dry-shod after striking it with Elijah’s rolled-up cloak, thereby dividing it. Elisha performed further riverine miracles when he directed the disease-ridden Aramean general Na’aman to immerse himself seven times in the Jordan’s waters, which healed Na’aman’s skin, and when he caused an iron axe blade to float up from the Jordan’s depths after one of his prophetic disciples had inadvertently dropped it into the river. In the Hasmonean era, Judah Maccabee and Jonathan Maccabee crossed the Jordan prior to their rescue campaign in Gilead; later, after Judah’s death, Jonathan Maccabee, Shimon Maccabee, and their force of Maccabean freedom fighters bivouacked by the marshes and thickets of the Jordan during their campaign against the formidable Seleucid (Syrian-Greek) general Bacchides, at one point swimming across the river after routing the enemy. Jesus of Nazareth was baptized in the river by his relative John. In the modern era, half a dozen bridges were erected to span the river, including: Arik Bridge, between Galilee and the Golan Heights; Jordan River Crossing/Sheikh Hussein Bridge, a border crossing, between Galilee and Jordan; Gesher Adam/Damiya Bridge, between Samaria and Jordan; and Allenby/King Hussein Bridge, another border crossing, between Judea and Jordan. The malign attempt by Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan to divert the river’s headwaters in 1965 was a contributing factor to the ensuing Six-Day War of 1967. Immortalized in the Tanakh, the Jordan has been celebrated further in many spiritual hymns and folk songs. Today the river is used for irrigation in order to grow fruits and vegetables and for recreational rafting, and remains revered by Christians as a baptismal site.
    18. Yarmuk – The largest tributary of the Jordan River, with its sources amid a lava plateau in the Golan Heights. The narrow and shallow Yarmuk flows with many convolutions southwestward, widening and deepening as it joins the Jordan several miles south of Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee). The river has its own tributaries, which feature numerous waterfalls. The Yarmuk served as the northern boundary of the Transjordanian geographical region of Gilead. According to the Mishnah, its water was deemed unfit for ritual use because it was “mixed”, which the medieval sage Eshtori HaParhi explained meant blended with the waters of Hamat Gader (Gadara), whose hot springs the Yarmuk skirts. In the Talmud, the sage Johanan bar Nappaha asserts that the Yarmuk is second only to the Jordan (in volume) among Israel’s rivers. In 636 CE, the Battle of Yarmuk River proved to be a decisive victory for the Muslim Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid against Theodorus Trithurius and the Byzantine Christians, whose Armenian and Christian Arab allies had deserted them. In 1946, during Operation Markolet (a.k.a. “The Night of the Bridges”), the Haganah bombed the Hejaz Railway bridge spanning the Yarmuk. For most of its length (approx. 50 miles) it serves as the northeastern border between Israel and Jordan.
    19. Kireet (Cherith) – An eastern tributary of the Jordan River where Elijah the prophet was divinely directed to hide and dwell, there to be sustained by the brook’s water and fed by its ravens who brought him bread and meat morning and evening. When the brook dried up during the drought which he had foretold, Elijah was directed to move on to be sustained by the widow of Tzarfat.
    20. Yabok (Jabbok) – The second-largest tributary of the Jordan River, joining the latter between Lake Kinneret (the Sea of Galilee) and the Dead Sea. Stretching some 62 miles, the Yabok emanates from a spring proximate to Rabat-Ammon and divides mountainous Gilead into two. After departing Haran, the patriarch Jacob forded the Yabok en route to his long-awaited yet dreaded reunion with his brother Esav. He conveyed his household and their possessions across the Yabok, and that night at the site known thereafter as Penuel (Peniel), a future capital of the Kingdom of Israel, he wrestled with a mysterious figure until daybreak. The Yabok served as the Ammonite-Amorite frontier—the dominion of the Amorite king Sihon extended between the Yabok and Arnon rivers—until the Amorites were defeated by Moses and the Israelites in the preliminary stages of the conquest and resettlement of Canaan. It subsequently served as the boundary between the Israelite tribes of Reuven and Gad to the south and Ammon to the north, and coursed by the Israelite capitals of Penuel and Mahanaim, as well as the town of Sukkot. During the Hellenistic era, the Yabok also functioned as the border of the domain of a prominent Jewish clan, the Tobiads. Thereafter the Romans erected a bridge spanning the Yabok. In Arabic the Yabok is called the Zarqa.
    21. Heshbon – An intermittent stream in Transjordania descending westward from the vicinity of the town of Heshbon in the heights of Moab through a verdant ribbon toward the longer watercourse Wadi al-Kafrein, which it joins in the Jordan River Valley north of the Dead Sea. The stream served as the boundary between the tribal territories of Gad to the north and Reuven to the south, and as the southern boundary of the geographical region Gilead. The oft-contested town of Heshbon first belonged to Moab, then served as the capital of King Sihon of the Amorites, then was allotted by Moses to the tribal territory of Reuven, then became a Levitical city in the tribal territory of Gad, then was reclaimed by King Mesha of Moab, then was reconquered by the Hasmonean ruler King Yannai Alexander of Judea, then became a military veterans’ colony in Perea (southern Gilead and the Mishor) under King Herod the Great. In the Songs of Songs, the male persona romanticizes his beloved with the description, “your eyes [are] like the pools in Heshbon”. Ruins of a reservoir are extant at the town.
    22. Arnon – The meandering Arnon flows northward then westward through limestone hills and a steep gorge into the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, opposite Ein Gedi. It extends for approximately 50 miles, is alternately broad and narrow, and deepens considerably (down to about 10 feet) during winter. It served as the boundary between the Amorites in the north and the Moabites in the south; after the Israelite conquest, it similarly divided the tribe of Reuven to the north and Moab to the south. King Mesha of Moab mentions the Arnon, and the roads (or fords) across it that he constructed, in his famous stele. The Arnon’s fords were indeed a critical link along the King’s Highway that traversed Transjordania from Eilat to Damascus. The river figures in the Tanakh when it cites “the lords of Arnon’s heights”, when the prophet Isaiah avers that the “daughters of Moab at the fords of the Arnon are like fluttering birds pushed from the nest”, and when the prophet Jeremiah relates the divine prophecy declaring: “Proclaim it by the Arnon that Moab has been laid waste”. The largest settlement in the vicinity in ancient times was the city of Aroer. In the Hasmonean era, the region was claimed by Johanan Hyrcanus and his son King Yannai Alexander, with the Arnon again serving as the boundary between the Judean kingdom to the north and Nabatea to the south. In the Roman era, a legion was stationed by the Arnon to secure the Eilat-Bozrah road crossing it. The Sages instituted a special blessing (“Blessed be He who performed miracles for our forefathers at this place.”) upon seeing the Arnon in commemoration of a legendary miracle that occurred when the Ark of the Covenant caused the ambuscading Amorites to be crushed in their cavernous hideouts, allowing the Israelites to proceed unmolested northward across the mountains of Gilead. The Arnon also became renowned for its plentiful fish and diverse wildlife.
    23. Zered – A river flowing northwestward through a deep rift into the south shore of the Dead Sea. The Zered extends for some 28 miles and served as the border between Moab to the north and Edom to the south, and was a camping site of the Israelites in their approach to the Promised Land. The river features on the Madaba Map south of Kerak.(Deuteronomium 2: 13) ...

    måndag 25 mars 2019

    Kummallinen uni revenneestä " megilasta"

    Kuin Suomen lippu rullalla,
    Rullalla,  joka on kuin  megila
    Aivan suurena  jäykkänä rullana
    vain  sulkijasilmukat  auenneina
    Rulla silmukoistansa  repeää
    ja on vain tyhjyyttä sisällä?

    Näen :jäljellä auennut  kuori 
    Tunnistan  Suomen lipuksi,
    se on valkoinen
    siniviirulippuni.
    ja se  suuntautuu
     minua kohti

    Mitä kummaa se tekee megilassa
    tai oikeastaan
    Megilan kuorena?
    Se kuori oli suljettu silmukoin
    ja ne  ratkennneet oli
    ja ne nähdä nyt voin.

    Unet on aina niin kummalliset.
    Kirjoitan muistiin ne tekeleet.
    25.3.2019

    Olin kerran häissä
    kun kutsuttiin
    Ne Kfar Saban
    saleissa  vietettiin.

    Tänä aamuna  tuli se raketti.

    Lippumegila  oli  kuin
    minuakin kohti.

     Oli megila tännä  tyhjyyttä
     jotakin liian   näkymätöntä
    sisältä  jotakin  entistä
     toispuolista ja eileeniä.

    ---Mitä todellisuudessa tapahtui:
    1) Rafan aluelta tuli 120 km kantosäteinen raketti joka putosi Kfar Saban taakse  moshaviin. Hamas ei tunnsuta raketin ampumista ja sanoo että  myrskyssä salama sen laukasi.
    2) Pohjolassa oli  armeijan harjoitukset ja  simulaatiossa tankki ajoi ruotsalaisen 40-vuotiaan naissotilaan kuoliaaksi.

     26.3. 2019 aamulla. Israelissa syttyi  äkkitaistelut ja kostonisku Gazan joka taas aiheutti rakettisateen takaisin. Soitin yöllä ystävälleni   Jerusalemiin. puhuimme myös vaaleista. kannatan Netnajahun jatkomandaattia ja hän ortodoksina oli vastaan. Kannatan ns. kultaista keskitietä, koska on hyvä että kansainvälisesti tunnustettu  jo toiminut pääminsiteri jatkaa edelleen neuvotteluja ja hänellä on jo  laaja verkosto kansainvälisiä neuvottelukumppaneita.  Ulkopolitiikan takia  olisi tärkeä jatkuvuus nyt vaikka sisäpolitiikassa  onkin  eroavuuksia.  Ja mitä tulee palestiinalaisten rauhanhaluihin on osoitautunut että ne jotka ovat rauhan puolesta ovat täysin voimattomia  saamaan mitään aikaan käytännössä ja jatkuva aksvava väkivalta pääsee dominoimaan tuhoisasti ja jopa tuhoten palestiinalaiset rauhan miehet.
    https://www.jpost.com/Headlines
    Ei ihme että näin unta että serafi aukaisi kaikki 6 siipeä ja lensi ilmassa ja kiiti ja Netanjahu oli serafin sisällä kuin se ihmisen kasvo. 
    Huh, tuo eilinen taistelu oli kuin serafin lento.  yleensä  kuvissa serafi, esim se Holokaustin muistomerkki vaskinen serafi,  näytetään seisovana patsaana 6 siipea supussa  Se on sen lepoasento ellei  yksi pyörä ole vielä sen alla.  Hesekiel sanoo: Henki on siinä pyörässä.  ha Kaikki pyörät ovat kuin yhtena keskiönä  kun on rauhan hetki .  Siis tämä  sota on ilmeiseti ollut aiheellinen vihastus turhasta sodanhengestä, koska Issrael toivoo rauhaa Gazalaisten kanssa ja ne taas sieltä Gazasta tekevät turhaa sotaa.   Tavaallinen puuttuminen asiaan on se henki, se pyörä joka lähtee liikkellle- tietysti tuon materian ankkuroiminen henkeen   ei ole aina saumatonta, nytkin iso tankki tipahti kaapelistaan ja jäi tielle  numero 4. köydet pääsivät irti.  Tietysti  normaaliakin  että  näkymättömien puolelta jotakin tulee näkyviinkin.  Eihän kukaan maailman valtio  ehdi edes  havaita  jos Israel on avarassa . Sillioin  tapahtuu tuo aktivoituminen  ihan Zabaoth taossa  ja synkronisoituminen ihmisiin ja - kuten tässä myös materiaan ja materian pyöriin.  Pohjolassa vaan kun armeijat  simuloivat sillä aikaa tapahtui se naissotilaan hengenmenetys, joka on surullinen asia.

    Joskus ennenkin olen nähnyt usnisas niitä  isralin serafeja liikkeellä, muta ne olivat ihan tulenvärisiä, tämä oli  tavallisen pilven valkeaa sellaista hopeanharmaata.
    Ne tuliset serafit olivat  19990-luvlla liikkeellä se taisi olla se iso Irakin sota.
    Siihen aikaan kulki ( unennäöissäni)  kerubivaunuja maassa siis niitä Hes.1. olentoja. ne ovat niitä Israelin  Zebaoth puolustuvoimia.  Tuolalisia uni nin siellä  Lempäälän Beetelin  lähellä, josa yövyin emtsämökissä pari sataa metriä  seurakunnan alttarista ja saarnatuolista K O Syväntö oli  niihin aikoihin aivan ikänsä huipulla ja Syvännön perheessä oli  sukupolvenvaihdosta siellä Israelissa Raamatunkäännöstyön saadessa uusia muotoja.  ja siirtyessä muiden kansojen valistamiseen ja lahjakkaiden  nuroten  opetatmiseen raamatunkäännöstyöhön alkuperäisestä hebreasta.  Se oli valtava muutos.  Nuo uudet raketin kantomatkat ulottuisivat  myös Raamatunkääntäjien  keskukseen, jonne juuri on saatu valmiiksi suomalainen hirsitalokin. Siellä on valtavan  kiinteä opetustyömenossa ja yliopistolliset  intensiivikurssit hebreaa ja originaalia  Raamattua.

    .



    http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/Flash.aspx/452335



    Ei vain Salomonin temppelistä tehty kuparivarkauksia

    https://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=112&artikel=7153246

    fredag 22 mars 2019

    Slovenian alue Holokaustiajan mikrokosmos

     Kaikenkaikkiaan jugoslavian kaikki historia ja  maantietoon niin munomutkaista, että kerros  kerroseltakaan siitä tuskin saa hyvää käsistystä.
    Kstson nyt vain jugoslavian  lounaiskulman karttaa jokaon ajalta  1938.
    Slovenia jaettiin  seuraavasti.
    1. Primorska
    2. Krajnska . Alueen pääkaupunki on Ljubljana ( Laibach)
    2a Gorenjska ( Alta Carniola) Oberkrain. Tällä alueella oli Bohinj-järvi ja Bled-järvi. Bohinj-järvi seutu on Hinterland aluetta ja siellä on  I maailmansodan sotilashautausmaita sekä poliitisten vankien hautauspaikkoja (Koprivnik, Srenja, Ukane, Planina na Kraju) Small war Musem ( Mali vojni muzei 19899.  Trigla  alppi ja sen luonnonpuistoalue., Slovenian korkein kohta.
    2b Notrajnska
    2c Dolenjska
    3. kuroshka
    4. Shtajerska
    5. Prekmurje
    Suurin osa Slovenian juutalaisista asui Prekmurjessa, jonka kunnista oli kolme pääasiassa luterilaista ja yhdessä oli runsaammin myös  juutalaisia  moravske Toplica ( Murska Sobota ja Lendava) .


    https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Inner_Carniola

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prekmurje

    1921, the total population of the area numbered 92,295 people, including 74,199 Slovene speakers, 14,065 speakers of Hungarian, and 2,540 German speakers. Since then, the number of Hungarian speakers has been falling slowly but steadily. The German-speaking community, which used to be concentrated in three villages near the Austrian border and in Murska Sobota, was either expelled from the area or assimilated after World War II.
    Since the early 1950s, Hungarian has had co-official status in the traditional settlement area of the Hungarian minority. Three municipalities are completely bilingual—Lendava (Hungarian: Lendva), Hodoš (Hungarian: Hodos), and Dobrovnik (Hungarian: Dobronak)—and the two municipalities of Šalovci and Moravske Toplice are only partially bilingual. Two municipalities, Hodoš and Dobrovnik, have a Hungarian majority.
    Prekmurje has traditionally been the most heterogeneous Slovene region regarding religious affiliation. Besides a Roman Catholic majority, there is a significant Protestant (mostly Lutheran) minority, concentrated in the Goričko hills, which represents between one fourth and one fifth of the population of Prekmurje. Three municipalities have a Lutheran majority (Puconci, Gornji Petrovci, and Hodoš), while in Moravske Toplice, Lutherans form just under half of the population.
    Before World War II, there used to be a significant Jewish community as well, mostly concentrated in the towns of Murska Sobota and Lendava (see also: Lendava Synagogue). In the 1930s, two-thirds of all Slovenian Jews lived in Prekmurje. Most of them perished in the Holocaust. There is also a significant Romani presence in the region, with Prekmurje being one of the two major settlement areas of Slovenian Romani (the other being Lower Carniola).

    • http://www.sinagogamaribor.si/en/heritage/holocaust-in-slovenia/

      Holocaust in Slovenia

      During World War II, the economic prominent and organised Jewish community was also annihilated within today’s Slovenian territory.
      World War II was one of the darkest chapters in the history of Judaism in Slovenia. At that time the most powerful Jewish community lived in Prekmurje, particularly in the area of Lendava (Hungarian Lendva, German Unter-Limbach) and Murska Sobota (Hungarian Muraszombat, German Olsnitz). In 1944 they suffered a fatal blow by mass destruction in Nazi concentration camps; most Jews died in the notorious Auschwitz.

      Righteous Among the Nations

      Despite severe repression you could find individuals among Slovenians who were ready to help save their Jewish population. They were in that minority who managed to maintain human values at a time of complete moral collapse, and believed that the persecuted Jews should be protected and saved. These were the ‘righteous among the nations’, who were later given special international recognition for their unselfish help during the persecution of Jews, and their names are recorded on memorial plaques and engraved on walls in the Yad Vashem Garden of the ‘Righteous Among the Nations ‘, in Israel.
      Among the Slovenian righteous are
      • Uroš Žun, 
      • Andrej Tumpej, 
      • Zora Pičulin,
      •  Ivan Breskvar,
      •  Franjo Punčuh,
      •  Ljubica
       and
      •  Ivan Župančič, 
      while
      •  Olga Neuman (Rajšek)
       and
      •  Martina Marković Levec
       are listed among Croatian respectively Serbian Righteous.
       In compliance with recent findings, however, it is currently believed that there are a few more Slovenians who are going to be given this deserving recognition shortly.