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fredag 22 mars 2019

Slovenian alue Holokaustiajan mikrokosmos

 Kaikenkaikkiaan jugoslavian kaikki historia ja  maantietoon niin munomutkaista, että kerros  kerroseltakaan siitä tuskin saa hyvää käsistystä.
Kstson nyt vain jugoslavian  lounaiskulman karttaa jokaon ajalta  1938.
Slovenia jaettiin  seuraavasti.
1. Primorska
2. Krajnska . Alueen pääkaupunki on Ljubljana ( Laibach)
2a Gorenjska ( Alta Carniola) Oberkrain. Tällä alueella oli Bohinj-järvi ja Bled-järvi. Bohinj-järvi seutu on Hinterland aluetta ja siellä on  I maailmansodan sotilashautausmaita sekä poliitisten vankien hautauspaikkoja (Koprivnik, Srenja, Ukane, Planina na Kraju) Small war Musem ( Mali vojni muzei 19899.  Trigla  alppi ja sen luonnonpuistoalue., Slovenian korkein kohta.
2b Notrajnska
2c Dolenjska
3. kuroshka
4. Shtajerska
5. Prekmurje
Suurin osa Slovenian juutalaisista asui Prekmurjessa, jonka kunnista oli kolme pääasiassa luterilaista ja yhdessä oli runsaammin myös  juutalaisia  moravske Toplica ( Murska Sobota ja Lendava) .


https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Inner_Carniola

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prekmurje

1921, the total population of the area numbered 92,295 people, including 74,199 Slovene speakers, 14,065 speakers of Hungarian, and 2,540 German speakers. Since then, the number of Hungarian speakers has been falling slowly but steadily. The German-speaking community, which used to be concentrated in three villages near the Austrian border and in Murska Sobota, was either expelled from the area or assimilated after World War II.
Since the early 1950s, Hungarian has had co-official status in the traditional settlement area of the Hungarian minority. Three municipalities are completely bilingual—Lendava (Hungarian: Lendva), Hodoš (Hungarian: Hodos), and Dobrovnik (Hungarian: Dobronak)—and the two municipalities of Šalovci and Moravske Toplice are only partially bilingual. Two municipalities, Hodoš and Dobrovnik, have a Hungarian majority.
Prekmurje has traditionally been the most heterogeneous Slovene region regarding religious affiliation. Besides a Roman Catholic majority, there is a significant Protestant (mostly Lutheran) minority, concentrated in the Goričko hills, which represents between one fourth and one fifth of the population of Prekmurje. Three municipalities have a Lutheran majority (Puconci, Gornji Petrovci, and Hodoš), while in Moravske Toplice, Lutherans form just under half of the population.
Before World War II, there used to be a significant Jewish community as well, mostly concentrated in the towns of Murska Sobota and Lendava (see also: Lendava Synagogue). In the 1930s, two-thirds of all Slovenian Jews lived in Prekmurje. Most of them perished in the Holocaust. There is also a significant Romani presence in the region, with Prekmurje being one of the two major settlement areas of Slovenian Romani (the other being Lower Carniola).

  • http://www.sinagogamaribor.si/en/heritage/holocaust-in-slovenia/

    Holocaust in Slovenia

    During World War II, the economic prominent and organised Jewish community was also annihilated within today’s Slovenian territory.
    World War II was one of the darkest chapters in the history of Judaism in Slovenia. At that time the most powerful Jewish community lived in Prekmurje, particularly in the area of Lendava (Hungarian Lendva, German Unter-Limbach) and Murska Sobota (Hungarian Muraszombat, German Olsnitz). In 1944 they suffered a fatal blow by mass destruction in Nazi concentration camps; most Jews died in the notorious Auschwitz.

    Righteous Among the Nations

    Despite severe repression you could find individuals among Slovenians who were ready to help save their Jewish population. They were in that minority who managed to maintain human values at a time of complete moral collapse, and believed that the persecuted Jews should be protected and saved. These were the ‘righteous among the nations’, who were later given special international recognition for their unselfish help during the persecution of Jews, and their names are recorded on memorial plaques and engraved on walls in the Yad Vashem Garden of the ‘Righteous Among the Nations ‘, in Israel.
    Among the Slovenian righteous are
    • Uroš Žun, 
    • Andrej Tumpej, 
    • Zora Pičulin,
    •  Ivan Breskvar,
    •  Franjo Punčuh,
    •  Ljubica
     and
    •  Ivan Župančič, 
    while
    •  Olga Neuman (Rajšek)
     and
    •  Martina Marković Levec
     are listed among Croatian respectively Serbian Righteous.
     In compliance with recent findings, however, it is currently believed that there are a few more Slovenians who are going to be given this deserving recognition shortly.

KRANJ WWII

Slovenian juutalisen seurakunnan hsitoriasta on  pieni maininta  Wikipediassa.

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_Slovenia
Seukuntaaon ollut 1200-luvulta.  Vuonna 1910 Sloveniassa oli  ainakin 190 juutalaista.  Siihen aikaan oli Itävalta-unkarin  valta-aika. Versaillen rauhan jälkeen  alue kuului jugoslaviaan jatämä maailmansotien välinen aika oli juutalaiselle väestölle hyvä ja rakennettiin synagogia ja kouluja.  Tilanne paheni äkisti vuonna 1941 natsien invaasiossa. Suurin osa juutalaisisita kuljetettiin
Auschwitz-Birkenau tuholeirille ja osa heistä vietiin Italian keskitysleireille. Osa liittyi partisaaneihin ja Slovenian vastarintaliikkeeseen.  Sodan jälkeen  nousi uuta seurakuntaa ja  rakennettiin synagoga ja seurakuntakeskus.  Rabbiini  Triestestä käy Sloveniassa  muutaman kerran kuukaudessa.  vuodesta 1999. 




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kranj
NYT:
 Kranj
  (saks. Krainburg) on 53 000 asukkaallaan (2007) Slovenian neljänneksi suurin kaupunki. Se sijaitsee noin 25 kilometriä pääkaupungista Ljubljanasta luoteeseen.
 Sava- ja Kokra-jokien yhtymäkohdassa ja on Gorenjskan alueen keskus. Kaupunki on 385 metrin korkeudella merenpinnasta ja sen pinta-ala on 150,9 neliökilometriä.[1]
Kranjissa on hyvin säilynyt vanhakaupunki, joka julistettiin historialliseksi ja kulttuuriseksi muistomerkiksi vuonna 1983. Sen keskus on Glavni trgin aukio, jonka reunalla on näyttelytilaksi muutettu kaupungintalo, 1500-luvulla rakennettu historiallinen Pavšlarin talo ja myöhäisgoottilainen kirkko. Kaupungin muihin nähtävyyksiin kuuluvat esimerkiksi France Prešerenin museo, vuonna 1527 rakennettu tullihuone, puolustusmuurien jäänteet, Khislsteinin linna ja Leopold Layerin talo.[2]
Kaupunki sijaitsee Ljubljanan ja Villachin välisen rautatien ja moottoritien varrella. Brnikin lentoasema sijaitsee kaupungin lähellä.


Second World War

Planina Mass Grave
During the Second World War, Kranj, along with the rest of northern Slovenia, was annexed by Nazi Germany.[7] The German authorities dismantled the Jugo-Češka textile works, replacing the machinery with equipment to produce aircraft. On 21 March 1944, German forces discovered several communist activists and functionaries at the Šorli Mill in Rupa in the northern part of the town, where military supplies for the Partisans were being stored. Three of the men at the mill were killed and the German forces then burned the mill.[6]

Mass grave

Kranj is the site of a mass grave from the period immediately after the Second World War. The Planina Mass Grave (Slovene: Grobišče Planina) is located in a small woods in a field near the city cemetery. It contains the remains of an undetermined number of people murdered after the war; the victims may be German prisoners of war, Home Guard soldiers repatriated from Austria, or Slovene civilians from Kranj and the surrounding area.[8][9]

Susan puurima 5779, 22.3. 2019 . Juliaaniset Alpit

olen lukenut parina päivänä jugoslavian tapahtumia Versaillen rauhansopimuksenjälkeen Saksanmiehitykseen 1941. Yöllä katsoin dokumenttifilmejä  vuodesta 1941 ja titon ajasta.  tänään otin esiin anhan kartan euroopasta,  1938 ja siinä näkyy Jugoslaviasta lounaiskulma.
Kirjoitin siitä alueesta paikannimiä muistiin ja etsin  ensimmäisenä Google hakuna seuraavall hakusanalla. Julian Alps during WWII
Löytyi seuraava kiraj ja kuvaus  kolmen valtion rajakohdasta italia-Itävalta- Slovenia.

 https://books.google.se/books?id=ZWM0LbjMZ5QC&pg=PA176&lpg=PA176&dq=Julian+Alps+during+Holocaust&source=bl&ots=Yz7GR2bWFT&sig=ACfU3U0XH-lm5ye_ezVU6aKCCphK1f4FOA&hl=sv&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwilpMbPoJXhAhUDdJoKHRoNC7MQ6AEwEnoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=Julian%20Alps%20during%20Holocaust&f=false
katsoin kirjasta lisätietoa: Yanky Fachler (2003). Rfebuilding the fachler tribe after the Holocaust. Printed in Victoria, canada. ISBN 1-4120-0755-0.
Tässä löytämässäni kohdassa on juuri tapahtunut  juutalaisten oman  prikaatin muodostuminen  28.9. 1944 Egyptin erämaassa ja se on saanut tehtävänsä tulla tuohon Adriaatisen meren kulmaan ja sieltä  Juliaanisille alpeille kolmen valtakunnan rajalle.  Muodoostuu pelastava ryhmä, joka perustaa juutalaisille hengissä säilyneille oman leirin, jossa hoidetaan ja ravitaan  kuolemasta pelastuneita ja  autetaan eteenpäin.  Se oli tienoota, jossa vaelsi  monien maitten  hengissäsäilyneitä.






fredag 1 mars 2019

Lasten kuljetus turvaan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kindertransport

Kylväjän Kibbutsi- HaZorea , Wilfrid Israel Z"L

Ystävättäreni Israelista kertoi tänään tulleessa  kirjeessään retkestä, jonka hän äskettäin on tehnyt keväiseen  Israeliin.  Kibbutsista  HaZorea hän mainitsee  historiasta tärkeän henkilön, Wilfrid Israel, (Z"L) saksalaisenglantilainen juutalainen, jonka ansiosta pelastui tuhansia  ihmisiä  Holokaustilta, moni tuli Israeliin ja perusti HaZorea-kibutsin.  Hän joutui natsien takaa-ajamaksi ja  sodan aikana  saksalaishävittäjät pudottivat  siviililentokoneen, josa hän matkustai Espanjasta Englantia kohti.Kone tuhoutui 1..6. 1943 eikä hänen  ruumistansa löydetty.
 hänenmusitopäivänsäon 1.6.  Vuona 1951  perustettiin musea vuonna 1951 HaZorea-kibbutsiin  ja se kantaa hänen nimeänsä.  1.6. 2016 hänen musitopäivänään  myönnettiin  hänelle  Juutalaisen pelastajan tunnusmerkki.  Ooth HaMazil HaJehudi

Saan täten kuulla  hänestä ensimmäisen kerran ja etsin lähteitä netistä:

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilfrid_Israel
 Wilfrid Berthold Jacob Israel ( 11.7. 1899-1.6.1943) Z"L

Wilfrid Berthold Jacob Israel (11 July 1899 – 1 June 1943) was an Anglo-German businessman and philanthropist, born into a wealthy Anglo-German Jewish family, who was active in the rescue of Jews from Nazi Germany, and who played a significant role in the Kindertransport.
Described as "gentle and courageous" and "intensely secretive", Wilfrid Israel avoided public office and shunned publicity, but had, according to his biographer Naomi Shepherd, an "almost hypnotic" ability to influence friends and colleagues. Martin Buber described him as "a man of great moral stature, dedicated to the service of others".[1]
He was killed when his civilian passenger plane, en route from Lisbon to Bristol, was shot down by a Luftwaffe fighter patrol over the Bay of Biscay.


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HaZore%27a

  • LASTEN KULJETUS  pois Holokaustin koneistosta 
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kindertransport

Geography

HaZore'a is located on the western rim of the Jezreel Valley, surrounded by HaZore'a Forest to the south and west of the kibbutz, Yokneam Moshava to the north and the fields of the Jezreel Valley to the east.
HaZore'a Forest is a section of the Ramot Manasseh Park planted on the Menashe Heights by members of the kibbutz, working for the Jewish National Fund.[2] The forest has around 20 million trees (Eucalyptus, Pinus halepensis, Cupressus sempervirens, Ceratonia siliqua and more). In the forest there are several recreation facilities such as paths to the Shofet River which leads to the Ein Ami spring and several lookouts.[3]

Archeology

Ein Harshat is a cave located next to the Ein Ami spring, used as a burial site, with tunnels and rooms containing inscriptions from the Roman and Byzantine periods and burial tombs dating as early as the late Bronze Age. East to the cave are the remains of an ancient settlement. The site is called Tel Qira and it contains remains from the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Middle and Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age[3]

History

Establishment

The kibbutz is the only one in Israel established by the Werkleute movement from Germany. The Werkleute movement was a Jewish socialist movement that first sought to find alternatives for Jews in Germany, but in 1933, after Adolf Hitler's rise in Germany the movement adopted a Labour Zionist vision of joining to the Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine and establishing a kibbutz.[4]
In early 1934, the first group of pioneers arrived to Palestine. The sixty members split into two groups who received agricultural training in Mishmar HaEmek of the Kibbutz Artzi movement, and Givat Haim of the Kibbutz Meuhad movement, to learn the difference between the two movements. In 15 April 1934 the group reunited and concentrated in a Kibbutzim site in Hadera,[4] where they chose the name HaZore'a. In Hadera the members established a tents and shacks camp, and they earned a living in Hadera's orchards, construction and laundry.[4]
The Jewish National Fund chose an area of 3,500 dunams next to the moshava of Yokneam on the foot of the Menashe Hills and Mount Carmel, as the location for the kibbutz and a fund was raised in Germany to purchase the land from the Palestine Land Development Company, which purchased the land earlier from Arab landlords from Haifa and Lebanon.[5][2] On 3 December 1935 the community, which had 30 members, settled in a khan which was abandoned by the residents of Qira, located between Yokneam and the land purchased for the kibbutz. Because of the slow evacuation of the Arab tenants, the community first received a narrow plot of 70 dunams.[6] On 15 April 1936 the construction of tents and a carpentry shop was completed and all of the members moved to the land and began fencing their territory. In July 1936 the rest of the Gar'in members joined the kibbutz. In 1938 the kibbutz members decided to join the Kibbutz Artzi movement.[4]

Early years

In the wake of the slow evacuation process of the tenants, at one night in September 1936 the members expanded the kibbutz's boundaries, without obtaining permission from the authorities.[7] The agriculture in the kibbutz began to develop in the sectors of cattle, crops, nursery and vegetables. The members brought water to the kibbutz via horse-drawn carriage from Mishmar HaEmek. The financial hardships caused by the lack of land led the members to go work in Haifa as carriers, housewives and housekeepers. In 1937 a cowshed was established and first cows were purchased. In 1938 a vineyard was planted. Some members of the kibbutz earned their living in Mishmar HaEmek's bakery, forestry work for the Jewish National Fund and the construction of the Tegart's Wall. The British authorities agreed to expand the kibbutz's boundaries in hundreds of dunams. This allowed the kibbutz to build a chicken coop and develop the fruit and vine sectors. The first water well was drilled.[4]
Days after the establishment of the kibbutz the 1936–1939 Arab Revolt broke out, forcing the members to temporarily sleep at the carpentry shop, whose walls were covered in gravel. The members set up a watch tower made out of wood and following shootings by Arab gangs more guard posts were set around the place which were manned all day. In 1937 a spotlight was installed in the watchtower and a weapon storage was built in the tower's first floor with permission from the authorities. During World War II members of the kibbutz served in the British Army and the Palmach. The kibbutz was used during the war as a paratrooper training camp.[4]
In 1937, the members built the first fortified concrete building: the kitchen. A shack was set up and used as a dining room. The members began paving roads around the kibbutz. In 1938, the members built a structure used for laundry and public showers. In the next years the construction and development continue as children's houses and residential buildings were built. The kibbutz was connected to Mekorot's water supply.[4]
On 6 September 1938, the British government issued an order that was supposed to allow the kibbutz and Yokneam to acquire the lands designated for the settlements on the plain region, blocked by Arab militants during the Arab Revolt. The British sent a large police and military force and the boundaries of both settlements was increased.[8] HaZore'a received an additional 500 dunams.[4] The order solved the land problem for HaZorea once and for all.[9]
The kibbutz began absorbing Jewish groups which enriched its social fabric with a wide range of cultural views and languages:[2] a youth group from Germany arrived to the kibbutz (1939) and later moved to Yakum; a group of Werkleute members called "Mishmar HaDarom" moved to the kibbutz (1942) after they failed to integrate into Shamir; a group of Werkleute members who participated in the Dutch resistance (November 1944); a youth group from Bulgaria (1947); a group called "Erez" from Syria and Lebanon who arrived during the Aliyah Bet (1947); a group of Hashomer Hatzair members from the United Kingdom (1948); a group of Holocaust surviving teenagers named "HaOgen" from Poland, Yugoslavia, Romania and Hungary (1948).[4][3]
 

After Israeli Independence

After the end of the 1948 Arab–Israeli war the territory of HaZore'a was increased in thousands of dunams, which allowed further development of the agriculture. In 1961 the kibbutz built a plastic factory called "Plastophil" and the carpentry shop was turned into a company called "HaZorea Furniture"[4] The reparations from West Germany after the Holocaust helped in the construction of these facilities.[3]
The arrival of new groups continued after the establishment of Israel. In 1952, "Bnei Ephraim", a youth group from North Africa, aged 10 and 11 were educated in the kibbutz and some of them chose to stay.[2] In 1956 the kibbutz established an ulpan (Hebrew school) and some of its graduates chose to settle in the kibbutz.[4] A group of Hashomer Hatzair members from the United States settled in the kibbutz in 1958 and 1959.[3]
During the 1950s it was a center of Hashomer Hatzair attempts to work with the local Arab population.[10]

Economy

In the 1950s, the carpentry shop established in 1936 was expanded and HaZore'a Furniture Industries became a household name in Israel. Towards the end of the century, when profit margins declined, the factory was closed and the machinery was sold to a company in Amman, Jordan which continues to sell furniture under the Hazore'a brand name.[11]
HaZore'a industries include a plastics factory ("Plastopil"), a cowshed, an aquaculture complex ("HaZore'a Aquatics"), a quality control centre ("Maba") and various field crops.
HaZore'a is undergoing a complex process of change from the model of the traditional kibbutz, where everything is equally shared, to a more modern form of settlement. Essentially, HaZore'a still operates as a socialistic society, providing uniform living conditions to kibbutz members. Nevertheless, several changes of individualistic nature have already taken place, such as privatization of services like the dining room and the electricity utility. Another example is official recognition of certain "residency" statuses, which allow some populations to reside in the kibbutz without being part of the economic collective.
HaZore'a is headed by the Secretariat with two officials in charge of social issues. The Community Council of 15 kibbutz members meets once a week to discuss matters needing further attention. The final decisive authority of the kibbutz is the ballot, for which all members are eligible to vote.

Education and culture

Wilfrid Israel Museum
HaZore'a maintains a communal dining hall and an auditorium for cultural and communal activities, such as celebrating Jewish holidays. The kibbutz issues a weekly paper titled "Ba'sha'ar" (English: "At the gate"), which serves as a medium for a variety of material concerning everyday life in the kibbutz.
HaZore'a is home to Plagim Elementary School (established 1991), where children from the kibbutz and five other settlements study 1st to 6th grade. The school belongs to Megiddo Regional Council, and is part of the Israeli state education system.
Another option, open to both Jews and non-Jews, is the volunteering program, offering a less obligating frame for young people to experience kibbutz life. There is also Garin Tzabar and lone soldier programs that reside on the kibbutz.[12]
HaZore'a is home to the Wilfrid Israel Museum, an archaeology and art museum whose kernel is the Asian art collection of Wilfrid Israel. The museum was designed by Alfred Mansfeld.[13] Significant Bronze Age archaeological finds, some displayed at Wilfrid, have been made on-site at Hazorea.[14]


See also

References





  • "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved August 26, 2018.

  • "English page on Kibbutz HaZorea website". www.hazorea.org.il. Retrieved Feb 26, 2015.

  • Hareuveni, Immanuel; Eretz Yisrael Lexicon; Ministry of Education pp.251–252

  • "הזורע - קיבוץ [HaZore'a - Kibbutz]". Israel Labour Movement.

  • Levinger, 1987, p. 153.

  • Levinger, 1987, p. 161.

  • Levinger, 1987, p. 162.

  • Levinger, 1987, p. 164.

  • Levinger, 1987, p. 165.

  • Journal of Palestine Studies. 163. Volume XLI, Number 3, Spring 2012, p. 94.

  • News highlights, August 2013

  • http://www.aliyaing.com/up/ulpan

  • Rapp, David (Dec 7, 2001). "Well-endowed". HaAretz.


  • Bibliography


    lördag 23 februari 2019

    (2) Kuumoduliuutisia

    Rabbiininen rukous avaruusteknisten suoritusten onnistumisen  puolesta 23.2. 2019 (Aruz7)

    "May it be your will, L-rd our G-d and G-d of our fathers,
    that You send blessing and success to everything we do,
    that You lead our spacecraft to peace and bring it to peace,
    and save it from all sorts of malfunctions,
    and allow us to see it reach the moon in peace.
    And may You bring it back in happiness and in peace. 
    Because G-d gives wisdom, 
    and from His mouth comes knowledge and understanding. 
    Because You are a G-d Who hears prayers and supplications.
    Blessed are You, who hears prayers."

    https://beresheet.space/live