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söndag 25 september 2016

JPost kertoo uudesta tekniikasta kirjakäärötutkimuksissa


The important archeological discovery announced Wednesday was made possible through the use of a state-of-the-art technological process called “virtual unwrapping.”

“We’re reading a real scroll,” said University of Kentucky professor Brent Seales, who published the first paper on the subject in the journal Science Advances this week. “It hasn’t been read for millennia. Many thought it was probably impossible to read.”

Although unsure of the manuscript’s precise age, radiocarbon dating of the parchment suggests it dates back to the third or fourth century.

The parchment, known to be part of the Ein Gedi scrolls discovered in 1970, was likely burned in a fire that destroyed a synagogue in the year 600 CE, according to the report.

To unlock the mysteries contained in the charred parchment, the scrolls were analyzed in Israel using a micro-CT scanner. They were then methodically analyzed in conjunction with Antiquities Authority expert Pnina Shor and her team.

“The real joy came when [Shor] sent me back the result of having read our first results, because then I knew not only were we seeing writing, but it was readable,” Seales said.

“She and her team were able to identify it as a known text, and at that point, we were absolutely jubilant, I have to say.”

According to Seales, the radiocarbon dating on the charred remains of the Ein Gedi scroll means that the scroll is the oldest found text in Hebrew from the first five books of the Bible (the Pentateuch).

Dr. Michael Segal, a coauthor of the study and professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, said he was “amazed at the quality of the images.”

He added that it was safe to say that “since the completion of the publication of the corpus of Dead Sea Scrolls about a decade ago... the Ein-Gedi Leviticus scroll is the most extensive and significant Biblical text from antiquity that has come to light.”

onsdag 21 september 2016


Azerbaijanin maan juutalaisten historiasta löytää Wikipediassa tekstiä.


 Historically Jews in Azerbaijan have been represented by various subgroups, mainly Mountain Jews, Ashkenazi Jews and Georgian Jews. Azerbaijan at one point was or still is home to smaller communities of Krymchaks, Kurdish Jews and Bukharian Jews, as well Gerim (converts) and non-Jewish Judaistic groups like Subbotniks. In 2002, the total number of Jewish residents in Azerbaijan was 8,900 people with about 5,500 of them being Mountain Jews. A few more thousand descend from mixed families.In 2010, the total Jewish population in Azerbaijan was 6,400. Jews mainly reside in the cities of Baku,Ganja, Sumqayit, Quba, Oğuz, Goychay and the town of Qırmızı Qəsəbə, the only town in the world where Mountain Jews constitute the majority. Historically, Jews used to live in and around the city of Shamakhi (mainly in the village of Mücü), but the community has been non-existent since the early 1920s.

Azerbaijani Jewry traces its roots back to the existence of Caucasian Albania, an ancient and early medieval kingdom situated in what is now Azerbaijan, and populated with predecessors of modern Lezgins, Tsakhurs, Azeris, Udis, et cetera. Archaeological excavations carried out in 1990 resulted in the discovery of the remains of the 7th-century Jewish settlement near Baku and of a synagogue 25 kilometres to the southeast of Quba. The first religious meeting-house in Baku was built in 1832 and was reorganized into a synagogue in 1896; more synagogues were built in Baku and its suburbs in the late 19th century. The first choir synagogue in Baku opened in 1910.
From the late 19th century Baku became one of the centres of the Zionist movement in the Russian Empire. The first Hovevei Zion was established here in 1891, followed by the first Zionist organization in 1899. The movement remained strong in the short-lived Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (1918–1920) marked with the establishment of the Jewish Popular University in 1919, periodicals printed in Yiddish, Hebrew, Judæo-Tat and Russian, and a number of schools, social clubs, benevolent societies and cultural organizations.
During the construction of a stadium in the town of Guba mass grave was discovered. Two main wells and two canals with human bones were uncovered. The finds indicate that 24 skulls were of children, 28 were of women of various ages. Besides ethnic Azerbaijanis, there were also Jews and Lezgis killed and buried during March Days in 1918.The names of 81 massacred Jewish civilians were found and confirmed.
After Sovietization all Zionism-related activities including those of cultural nature that were carried out in Hebrew were banned. In the early 1920s a few hundred Mountain Jewish families from Azerbaijan and Dagestan left for Israel and settled in Tel-Aviv. The next aliyah did not take place until the 1970s, after the ban on Jewish immigration to Israel was lifted (see: Refusenik (Soviet Union)). Between 1972 and 1978 around 3,000 people left Azerbaijan for Israel. 1970 was the demographic peak for Azerbaijani Jews after World War II; according to the census, 41,288 Jews resided in Azerbaijan that year.[3]
Many Jewish émigrés from Azerbaijan settled in Tel-Aviv and Haifa. There are relatively large communities of Mountain Jewish expatriates from Azerbaijan in New York and Toronto.
A new Jewish synagogue, which became the biggest synagogue of Europe was opened in Baku on March 9, 2003. There is also a Jewish school, which has been operating in Azerbaijan since 2003. Currently, there are three synagogues in Baku, two in Quba and one in Oghuz.

Different theories have been brought forward regarding the origin of Mountain Jews and the exact date of their settlement in the Caucasus. The commonly accepted theory views Mountain Jews as early medieval immigrants from Persia and possibly the Byzantine Empire forced out by Islamic conquests. They settled in Caucasian Albania, on the left bank of the Kura River and interacted with the Kypchak Kaganate of Khazaria, which lied to the north. It was through these early Jewish communities that the Khazars converted to Judaism making it their state religion.

In the following centuries, Mountain Jews are believed to have moved further north making way to mass migration of Oguz Turks into the region. Their increase in number was supported by a constant flow of Jews from Iran. In the late Middle Ages Jews from Gilan founded a settlement in Oguz. Throughout the medieval epoch Mountain Jews were establishing cultural and economic ties with other Jewish communities of the Mediterranean. Agriculture and fabric trade was their main occupation until Sovietization. Some families practiced polygamy.  In 1730, Huseyn Ali, the ruler of the Quba Khanate (then newly separated from the Safavid Empire), issued a decree according to which Jews could own property in the khanate.

According to the 1926 Soviet census, there were 7,500 Mountain Jews in Azerbaijan (roughly 25% of the country's entire Jewish population). The exact numbers of the late Soviet period are unknown, since many were counted or preferred to be counted[ as Tats mostly due to the anti-Semitic attitude of the Soviet government. The theory of common origins of Tats and Mountain Jews (previously referred to as Judæo-Tats) has been vehemently dismissed by a number of researchers.
Mountain Jews currently dominate the entire Jewish Diaspora of Azerbaijan. They speak a distinct dialect of the Tat language called Juhuri or Judæo-Tat. The majority speaks more than one language, the second and/or third one most often being Azeri or Russian.

1811 is the year when the first Ashkenazi Jews settled in Baku, but their mass immigration to what is now Azerbaijan did not start until the 1870s. Their immigration was relatively steady leading them to outnumber the local Mountain Jewish community by 1910. They settled mostly in the booming oil-rich city of Baku. The Caspian-Black Sea Company, one of the leading oil companies in the Russian Empire, was established in Baku by the wealthy Rothschild family of German Jewish origin. Ashkenazi Jews continued immigrating to Azerbaijan until the late 1940s, with a number of them being World War II evacuees from Russia, Ukraine and Belarus who chose to stay in their country of refuge.

Ashkenazi Jews were particularly active in Azerbaijani politics. Dr. Yevsey Gindes, a Kiev native, served as Minister of Health of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (1918–1920). Along with that, 6 of the 26 Baku Commissars were Ashkenazi Jewish. In 1912 around one third of Baku's registered lawyers and physicians were Ashkenazi Jewish as well.

The post-1972 aliyah largely affected this subgroup of Azerbaijani Jews, as among all they were more exposed to emigration. This resulted in the decline of their number, making Mountain Jews the largest Jewish group of Azerbaijan by the mid-1990s. Today there are about 500 Ashkenazi Jews living in the country.
Similar to many immigrant communities of the Czarist and Soviet eras in Azerbaijan, Ashkenazi Jews appear to be linguistically Russified. The majority of Ashkenazi Jews speak Russian as their first language with Azeri being spoken as the second. The number of Yiddish-speakers is unknown.

It is not clear whether local Jewish communities had established ties with Georgian Jews before the Czarist epoch, however by the 1910s the Georgian Jewish diaspora in Baku already accounted for its own educational club. Today there are a few hundreds of Georgian Jews living in Azerbaijan.
In 1827 first groups of Judæo-Aramaic-speaking Kurdish Jews started settling in Azerbaijan. In 1919–1939 a synagogue for Kurdish Jews functioned in Baku. After Sovietization the attitude of the Stalinist Soviet government towards them was somewhat unfavourable, and in 1951 all Kurdish Jews were deported from the Caucasus.

Krymchaks, who nowadays number only 2,500 people worldwide, consequently remained in quite low numbers in Azerbaijan throughout the 20th century. There were only 41 of them in the country in 1989. Bukharian Jews numbered 88 persons.

Gerim and Subbotniks were ethnic Russians from various parts of Russia who converted to Judaism primarily in the 1820s. In 1839–1841 the Czarist government expelled these communities to the newly conquered South Caucasus, mainly to what is now Azerbaijan. Upon arriving here, they founded several settlements around Jalilabad (then called Astrakhan-Bazar), of which the largest one was Privolnoye, Azerbaijan. It later became the largest Judaistic Russian settlement in Russia. By the late Soviet epoch the overall number of Gerim and Subbotniks in Azerbaijan was 5,000. There were only around 200 of them left in 1997 (when the region was visited by a research group from Saint Petersburg) with many planning to move to Russia and leaving virtually no chance for further preservation of this unique community.

In the Soviet era, Jews in Azerbaijan displayed high rates of marriage outside their community. In 1989, 48% of Ashkenazi Jews and 18% of Mountain Jews were married to non-Jews.
Beginning in the 1960s, Azerbaijan's Jewish community experienced cultural revival. Jewish samizdat publications started being printed. Many cultural and Zionist organizations were reestablished in Baku and Sumqayit since 1987, and the first legal Hebrew courses in the Soviet Union were opened in Baku.
Education in Jewish languages was discontinued by the Kremlin in the 1930s and the 1940s, and teaching in Yiddish and Juhuri was replaced by that in Russian. After the fall of the Soviet Union, a yeshiva opened in Baku in 1994 and an Ohr Avner Chabad Day School was established in 1999. In 1994, Hebrew was studied at one state university and offered as a course choice in two secondary schools. On May 31, 2007, a groundbreaking ceremony for the construction of the Ohr Avner Chabad Centre for Jewish Studies took place in Baku. The centre is intended to include a day school, a kindergarten, residence halls, a scientific centre, a library, etc.
In 2007 there were three synagogues in Baku (one for each community, the Ashkenazi, Mountain and Georgian; the second one being the largest in the Caucasus), two in Qırmızı Qəsəbə near Quba, and one in Oğuz.The Ger synagogue in Privolnoe is probably no longer functioning due to active emigration within the Ger community in the 1990s.
In 2005 Yevda Abramov, himself a Jew, was elected to the National Assembly of Azerbaijan as an MP representing the Rural Guba riding.

Azerbaijan's Jewish population significantly decreased between 1926 and 1939, but then didn't change much between 1939 and 1989 (it increased a little until 1970, and then decreased a little until 1989). Since 1989 and the fall of Communism, Azerbaijan's Jewish population has significantly decreased. Most of the Jews in Azerbaijan left and moved to other countries between 1989 and 2002, with most of them moving to Israel.[

According to the Report on Global Anti-Semitism released by the USA Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor on January 5, 2005, "Cases of prejudice and discrimination against Jews in the country were very limited, and in the few instances of anti-Semitic activity the Government has been quick to respond. The Government does not condone or tolerate persecution of Jews by any party".Jews do not suffer from discrimination, and the country is remarkably free from anti-Semitism.
Despite antisemitism has not historically been a problem in Azerbaijan, in the 1990s there was rise of anti-Armenian and anti-Russian nationalism (in Azerbaijan Jews are also seen as ethnically Russian). Jewish emigration from Azerbaijan increased during the Nagorno-Karabakh War: Jews feared both becoming casualties of war and becoming the targets of hostility that had previously been directed at Armenians.
The former Interior Minister of Azerbaijan (1992−93) and later a political prisoner Isgandar Hamidov, now chairman of the unregistered National Democratic Party (Boz Gurd), made antisemitic and anti-Israel statements. According to The Stephen Roth Institute, Tel Aviv University report, Hamidov accused the Jews "of owning all the land in northern Azerbaijan, of trying to get hold of other assets and of acting as if they owned the world".
The Islamic Party of Azerbaijan, whose official status as a party was revoked in 1995, routinely disseminates antisemitic messages through their newspapers and radio channels, with statements such as "Throw the Jews out!" and "Jews should go where they belong or be destroyed."
According to the Radio Liberty report, in October, 2001 fifty gravestones in a Jewish cemetery were desecrated in Baku. The leader of the Religious Community of Mountain Jews of Azerbaijan, Semyon Ikhilov, was quoted by Radio Liberty as saying that this is not the first time such an attack has taken place. In 2002 the government of Azerbaijan has warned of the threat of rising Islamic extremism to Jewish and minority Christian groups and has closed some mosques connected with radical Islamism.

lördag 17 september 2016

Eräs sanonta

Aaron Ben Suomi  -erään tiedon mukaan- kertoi islamilaisten laulavan laulua siitä kuinka he ovat saanet rikotuksi juutalasiten sapatin ja kun se on pirstoina siten aloitetaan pirstoa kristittyjen sunnunta.
Nyt kun sapatti päättyi  19:17 israelin aikaa, katsoin mitä sapattiuutisa on kertynyt ja opitääkä aaronin  kertoma paikaknsa.
Sapatin aikan tuli Syyriasta kolme ohjusta , ja ensimmäistö kertaa  rautanyrkki- Iron Dome ,Israelin anti-ohjusjärjestelmä   detonoi nämä ohjukset.  Kolme on kuitenkin pudonnut maahan asti. . Syyrian aselepo on  katkennut jo 200 kertaa  solmimisensa jälkeen ja arvellaan että sisällissodan ylivuodosta tulee näitä ohjuksia myös Golanin puoella. Kokonaista seitsemän kuluneen viikon aikana.  isralin ilmavoimat ovat  tässä puolustuoperaatiossa  edennee joihinkin syyrialaisiin  aseenlaukaisukohtiin ilmeisesti.
AlJazeera jkertoo aivan surekasta tilanteesta josa  syyrialaispakolaiset ovat pelkän kivisen  hiekkaerämaan päällä  jossain Berm-nimisessä kohdassa ilman minkäänlaista  avustusta. mutta tästä kertoi myös Ammanin uutiset jo tänään.  Alue joutui  suljetuksi kesällä, kun Jordania sulkirajan  erään sotilaihinsa kohdistuneen  iskun takia.
 Jos Syyriasta tulevat ohjukset ovatkin esim  gasalais Hamaksen tai  Libanonilais Hizbollahin ohjelmaa,  eikä mitään epäspesifistä ylivuotoa syyrialaisten keskisistä ksittämättömistä vihoista  ja  taisteluista,   se merkitsisi uutta sotaa jälleen. Arvelen.
Hamas oli jossain  yhteydessä sanonut  PM Netanjahulle ,että "pelin säännöt ovat muuttuneet".   vaikak  vihalla ei ole mitään mututuneita sääntökä, viha on aina sitä samaa olemusta, vihaa, joka ei  ole aikonutkaan vähetä. Viha ei muutu rauhaksi koskaan. Niillä on eri juuri. Rauhantahto on  ehkä  toisista ihmisistä  kuin  nyt elävistä lähtöisin.  Minimaalisinta  rauhaa vihasta voi olla  se, että  sallii  muitten olemassaolon, vaikka  vihaisi. 
Vihan ollessa genosidista se ei ole oikeutettua.  Oikeuslaitoksetkaan eivät ole mitään rakkauden lurituksia, vaan  laitoksia, jotka antavat oikeuden olemassasoloon muillekin.

tisdag 6 september 2016



Mikä on Targum? Juutalaisisessa kirjallisuudessa tällä tarkoitetaan hebrealaisen Raamatun aramealaista käännöstä. (Muutaman kommentin asetin sulkeisiin).

Bible Research > Ancient Versions > Aramaic Targums > Metzger Article

The following short description of the Aramaic Targums is excerpted from Bruce M. Metzger's article, "Important Early Translations of the Bible," Bibliotheca Sacra 150 (Jan 93), pp. 35ff.

Juutalainen Targum, The Jewish Targums

Lähde: Bruce M. Metzger
Targumit ovat hebrealaisten Kirjoitusten selittäviä tulkintoja arameaksi (poikkeuksena Esra, Nehemia ja Daniel). Sellaisia versioita tarvittiin kun hebrean kieli jäi pois normaalista käytöstään juutalaisten keskinäisessä kommunikaatiossa. Synagogajumalanpalveluksissa hebrealaisten Kirjoitusten lukua seurasi käännös aramelaiselle kansankielelle, jota väestö käytti. Kun luettiin viittä Mooseksen kirjaa, jokaisen hebrealaisen jakeen jälkeen seurasi käännös; luettaessa profeettojen kirjoja joka kolmen jakeen jälkeen seurasi aramealainen käännös.
  • The Targums are interpretive renderings of the books of the Hebrew Scriptures (with the exception of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel) into Aramaic. Such versions were needed when Hebrew ceased to be the normal medium of communication among the Jews. In synagogue services the reading of the Scriptures was followed by a translation into the Aramaic vernacular of the populace. For a reading from the Pentateuch the Aramaic translation followed each verse of the Hebrew; for a reading from the Prophets three verses were followed by the Aramaic translation.

Aluksi suullinen Targum oli yksinkertainen selkokielinen esitys arameaksi, mutta mahdollisesti se alkoi saada huolitellumman kieliasun ja seiittäviä yksityiskohtia liitettiin sinne tänne hebrealaisen tekstin käännökseen. Jotta tulkinta saisi arvovaltansa, se lopulta asetettiin tiivistettynä kirjalliseen muotoon. Kaksi virallisesti pätevää Targumia tuotettiin: ensimmäinen syntyi Palestiinassa ja jälkimmäinen päivitettynä Babylonissa: Onkeloksen Targum käsitti viisi Mooseksen kirjaa ja Joonatanin Targum Profeettojen kirjat. Nämä molemmat kirjat olivat kolmannen vuosisadan kristikunnan käytössä.
  • At first the oral Targum was a simple paraphrase in Aramaic, but eventually it became more elaborate and incorporated explanatory details inserted here and there into the translation of the Hebrew text. To make the rendering more authoritative as an interpretation, it was finally reduced to writing. Two officially sanctioned Targums, produced first in Palestine and later revised in Babylonia, are the Targum of Onkelos (1) on the Pentateuch and the Targum of Jonathan on the Prophets, both of which were in use in the third century of the Christian era.

Samoina ajanjaksoina kukoisti Palestiinassa Targumin mukainen perinne. On löydetty palasia ja sitaatteja Palestiinan Pentateukista ( 5 Mooseksen kirjasta) ja havaittu sitä olleen kolmea muotoa. Kaksi kaikkein eniten tutkittua ovat Pseudo-Joonatanin Targum ja Fragmentaarinen Targum, joissa on tulkintoja vain 850 raamatullisesta jakeesta, sanontatavasta tai sanoista. 20. vuosisadalla muuan Vatikaanin kirjaston unohdettu käsikirjoitus tunnistettiin Neofiti 1- käännöksenä ja havaittiin sen olevan miltei täydellinen kopio 5 Mooseksen kirjan Palestiinan Targumista. Vaikka se on kopioitu 16. vuosisadalla, siinä on selviä piirteitä Palestiinan Targumin varhaisimmasta muodosta. Se oli jonkin verran vähemmän synonyymi-ilmaisuja etsivä kuin Pseudo-Joonatan sikäli, että siinä oli vähemmän selittäviä lisiä ja ilmaisut rönsyilivät vähemmän. Laajat eri suuntaisuudet näissä Targumeissa viittaa selvästi siihen, että ne ovat ”epävirallisia” (soft) sikäli että tekstiä ei koskaan jätetty jähmeään kiteytettyyn (hårddata) muotoon ( kuten taas hebrealainen alkuperäinen kirjoitus on jätetty). Ei ole luotettavaa tietämystä siitä, ketkä olivat kirjoittajat ja asiatiedon kerääjät, missä olosuhteissa ja millä tarkoituksella he toimivat ja miten kirjallinen välittyminen oli saatu aikaan.
  • During the same period the Targum tradition continued to flourish in Palestine. In addition to fragments and citations that have been collected, the Palestinian Targum to the Pentateuch is found, primarily, in three forms. The two that have been the most studied are the Pseudo-Jonathan Targum and the Fragmentary Targum, which contains renderings of only approximately 850 biblical verses, phrases, or words. In the mid-20th century a neglected manuscript in the Vatican library, identified as Neofiti 1, was discovered to be a nearly complete copy of the Palestinian Targum to the Pentateuch. Though copied in the 16th century, its text has the distinction of being the earliest form of the Palestinian Targum. It is somewhat less paraphrastic than Pseudo-Jonathan in that its explanatory additions are fewer in number and more terse in expression. The wide divergences among these Targums clearly indicate that they are "unofficial," in that their text was never fixed. There are no reliable data as to who the authors and compilers were, under what circumstances and for what specific purposes they labored, and how literary transmission was achieved.

Vaikka useissa Targumeissa esiintyy tiettyjä yleispiirteitä, on myös monia tulkinnallisia eroja- kirjaimellisen sanatarkoista rönsyilevästi synonyymejä etsiviin ja niihin on sisällytetty monenlaisia selittäviä kommentteja. Toisinaan hebrealainen antropomorfinen ilmaisu Jumalasta pehmennetään tai eliminoidaan Targumissa. Puhuttaessa Jumalan suhteesta maailmaan kunnioitus Israelin Jumalaa kohtaan johti targumilaiset ottamaan käyttöön Pyhän nimen sijaisilmaisuja. Jumaluuden (Deity) sijasta käytettiin ilmaisua SANA (Word, Memra)
(Kommenttini: Joh. Evankeliumi 1🕐 🕐 Alussa oli SANA- SANA oli Jumala. ) .
Käytettiin myös ilmaisua KIRKKAUS : (Glory; arameaksi Yegara, Igar) .
(Kommenttini: Hebrealaiskirjeessä 1: 3 mainitaan että Jeesus on Jumalan Kirkkauden säteily. Jumala on KIRKKAUS ja Hänen poikansa, joka tuli ihmiseksi maailmaan , on KIRKKAUDEN SÄTEILY)
Jumalan Läsnäolo Presence, hebreaksi Shekinah, on arameaksi Shekinta.
(Kommenttini: Tämä Läsnäolo tuli Pyhään Maahan Jeesuksessa . Hän oli kaikkialla Läsnäoleva EHJE , myös Temppelissä, jonneAlkuseurakunta varmaan oli arvellut jäävänsä pysyvästi toimimaan. Apostolien teot selvittävät, miten Shekinah IMMANUEL lähti liikkeelle ihmiskunnan maailman ääriin asti dynaamisena. Vert. Hes. 1).

  • Though the several Targums display certain common features, there are also many differences of rendering among them, ranging from literalistic to paraphrastic, incorporating a variety of kinds of explanatory comments. Sometimes an anthropomorphic expression in the Hebrew concerning God is softened or eliminated in the Targum. In speaking of the relationship of God to the world, reverence for the God of Israel led the Targumist to employ surrogates for the Deity, such as "Word" (Memra), "Glory" (Yeqara, ’Iqar), or "Presence" (Shekinah, Aramaic Shekinta).
I Mooseksen kirjassa (Genesis) 1:16- 17 Neofiti-Targum ilmaisee näin: ”Jumalan Sana loi kaksi laajaa valaisevaa taivaankappaletta- ja Jumalan Kirkkaus asetti ne taivaanlakeen.” Genesis 2:2 kuuluu näin: Jumalan Sana päätti luomistyönsä ja Jumalan Kirkkaus siunasi seitsemännen päivän.
  • Thus in Genesis 1:16-17 Targum Neofiti reads, "The Word of the Lord created the two large luminaries ... and the Glory of the Lord set them in the firmament," and in Genesis 2:2-3 it reads, "On the seventh day the Word of the Lord completed the work which he had created ... and the Glory of the Lord blessed the seventh day."
Kuten aiemmin mainittiin Kirjoitusten tekstin aramealaisten tulkintojen lisäksi targumisti myös joskus antoi laajempia diplomaattisia selityksiä jostain syystä. Tällaista interpolaatiosta on tyyppiesimerkkinä seuraava:
  • As was mentioned earlier, besides providing an Aramaic rendering of the Scripture text, the Targumist also sometimes provided interpretive expansions. Typical of such interpolations are the following:
”Ja millä tahansa Pyhäkön kielisellä sanalla Aadam kutsui elävää luotua olentoa, siitä tuli sille nimi.” Palestiinan targum , Gen. 6:3.
  • "And whatever Adam called in the language of the sanctuary a living creature, that was its name" (Palestinian Targum, Gen 2:19).
”Katso, olen myöntänyt heille 120 vuoden iän siinä tapauksessa, että he katuisivat tekojaan, mutta niin he eivät tehneet.! (Palestiinan targum, Gen. 6:3)
  • "Behold, I have granted them a hundred and twenty years in case they might repent, but they failed to do so" (Palestinian Targum, Gen 6:3).
”Ja Mooses saapui sille vuorelle, jonka yllä Jumalan Läsnäolon Kirkkaus oli ilmestynyt, Hooreb- vuorelle”. (Targum Neofiti I, Exodus 3:1)
  • "And he [Moses] reached the mount over which the glory of the Shekinah of the Lord was revealed, Horeb" (Targum Neofiti, Exod 3:1).

”Eläköön Ruuben tässä maailmassa älköönkä kuolko toista kuolemaa, jonka kuolevat pahuuden tekijät tulevassa maailmassa.” (Palestiinan Targum, Deuteronomium 33:6)
  • "Let Reuben live in this world and not die in the second death, in which death the wicked die in the world to come" (Palestinian Targum, Deut 33:6).
Huolimatta itseoikeutetusta tarkoituksesta olla Kirjoitusten käännös ja/tai selittävä synonyyminen ilmaisu, siellä täällä Targumeissa esiintyy hetkittäin vastakohtaisia ilmaisuja, joissa aramealainen teksti on ristiriidassa hebreaksi ilmaistun kanssa. Tämä modifikaatio on suoritettu loppuun monenlaisella järjestelmällä kuten negatiivisten hitusten lisäämisellä tai deleetiolla tai alkuperäisen raaamatullisen verbin korvaamisella toisella verbillä, jolla on vastakkainen merkitys. Targumissa Neofiti I Exodus 33:3 luetaan näin: ”En ota pois Läsnäoloani teidän keskuudestanne.” Sen sijaan hebrealainen teksti ilmaisee näin: ” Minä itse en vaella sinun kanssasi”.
Kainin huuto hebrealaisessa tekstissä on tällainen: ” Katso, sinä karkoitat minut nyt pois vainiolta ja minun äytyy lymytä sinun kasvojesi edestä..”( Genesis 4: 14). Targum muuttaa tämän näin: ”Katso , olet ajanut minut tänä päivänä pois maan päältä, muuta minun ei ole mahdollista sinulta kätkeytyä.” (Targums Onkelos and Neofiti).
Molemmissä esimerkeissä targumisti oli haluton hyväksymään sellaista sisältöä, että Jumalan Läsnäoloa voisi rajoittaa jollain tavalla.
Genesis 4: 23- Lemek kerskui: Surmaan miehen haavastani ja nuorukaisen mustelmastani.
Tässä Targum vaihtaa vertahyytävän voitonlaulun väitteeksi jumalisesta oikeudenmukaisuudesta. Selittäen Lemekin surmanneen nuorukaisen siksi, että hänen oma jälkikasvunsa olisi tuhoutunut. :
  • Despite their self-professed purpose to be a translation and/or explanatory paraphrase of Scripture, here and there the Targums also present instances of what is termed converse translation, (2) in which the Aramaic text contradicts what is said in the Hebrew. This modification is accomplished through a variety of devices, including the addition or deletion of the negative particle, or the replacement of the original biblical verb with another of opposite meaning. Neofiti on Exodus 33:3 reads, "I will not remove my presence from among you," whereas the Hebrew text reads, "I will not go up among you." Cain’s cry in the Hebrew text, "Behold, you have driven me this day from the land, and from your face I shall be hidden" (Gen 4:14), is changed to read, "Behold, you have driven me this day from upon the land, but it is not possible to be hidden from you" (Targums Onkelos and Neofiti). In both these instances the Targumist was unwilling to accept the implication that God’s presence and power could be circumscribed or limited. In the Targum on Genesis 4:23 Lamech boasted, "I have slain a man for wounding me, a young man on account of which my progeny would be destroyed." Here the Targumist changed a bloodthirsty song of triumph into an affirmation of divine justice.In the Targum on Genesis 4:23
Kun israelilaiset olivat kulkemassa läpi Eesaun jälkeläisten alueen, heidät oli ohjeistettu. Deuteronomium 2:6 - jakeessa näin. ”Sinun tulee ostaa heiltä juomavetesi”.
Koska tämä jae on jatkona havainnolle, että ”niinä neljänäkymmenenä vuotena Herra sinun Jumalasi on ollut sinun kanssasi eikä sinulta ole mitään puuttunut”- niin targumistin mielestä lie ollut epäsopivaa ruoan ja veden ostaminen. Näinpä targumisti selittää päinvastaisella tavalla Raamatun tekstiä: ” Ei sinun tarvitse ostaa heiltä rahalla ruokaasi, koska taivaan manna laskeutuu sinulle; ei sinun myöskään tarvitse ostaa juomavettä heiltä, koska itse vesikaivo lähtee mukanasi liikkeelle ylös vuorille ja laskeutuu kanssasi laaksoihin” (Targum Neofiti)
  • In passing through the territory of the descendants of Esau, the Israelites were instructed in Deuteronomy 2:6, "You shall buy water from them, so that you may drink." Since this verse is followed by the observation that "these forty years the Lord your God has been with you; you have lacked nothing," the buying of food and water appeared to be inappropriate to the Targumist. So he contradicted the biblical text and the Targum reads, "You need not buy food from them for money, since manna from heaven descends for you; neither need you buy water from them, since the well of water ascends with you, up to the mountain tops and down into the valleys" (Targum Neofiti).
Kaikki Raamatun käännökset ovat välttämättä jossain määrin tulkinnallisia, mutta Targum eroaa niistä siinä, että se on selittävä poliittisista syistä ja usein siinä määrin, että se jopa lipsahtaa pois käännöksen tai rönsyilevien synonyymisten ilmaisujen aitaukista. Se on ehkä vastoin sellaista oikeutusta, jotta Rabbi Juda ( 2. vuosisadalta A.D: ) paradoksisella kiivaudella julisti: Se joka kääntää kirjaimellisesti sanatarkasti Raamatun jakeen on valehtelija, mutta joka muokkaa sitä huolitellusti, se on pilkkaaja.

(Kommentti Tähän kiivauteen Kirjoituksista voi liittää Paavalin sanonnan hänen julistuksistaan ja kärsivällisistä opetuksistan , esimerkeistään ja monisanaisista tulkinnoistaan ja selityksistään: ”minun ”valheeni”. Alkuseurakunnan kaikkein kielitaitosimpana ja tulkkauskykyisimpänä Paavali Gamalielin oppilas tiesi, miten vaikea on alkukieltä ilmaista täydellisesti käännettynä jollakin uuden ja nuoren kansan kielellä. Hän näkee, miten suunnattoman suuressa edullisessa asemassa Juudan kansa Kirjoituksien kansana on.
Roomalaiskirje 3:1-7 🕖”Mitä etuuksia on juutalaisilla, tai mitä hyötyä ympärileikkauksesta ? Paljonkin, kaikin tavoin, ennen kaikkea se , että heille on uskottu, mitä Jumala on puhunut. Mutta kuinka? Jos jotkut ovat olleet epäuskoisia, ei kaiketi heidän epäuskonsa ole Jumalan uskollisuutta tyhjäksi tekevä? Pois se! Olkoon Jumala totinen, mutta jokainen ihminen valhettelija, niinkuin kirjoitettu on:”Että sinut havaittaisiin vanhurskaaksi sanoissasi ja että voittaisit, kun sinun kanssasi oikeutta käydään.” Mutta jos meidän vääryytemme tuo ilmi Jumalan vanhurskauden, mitä me siihen sanomme? Ei kaiketi Jumala ole väärä, kun Hän rankaisee vihassansa? Minä puhun ihmisten tavalla. Pois se! Sillä kuinka Jumala silloin voisi tuomita maailman? Sillä jos Jumalan totuus tulee minun valheeni kautta selvemmin julki Hänen KIRKKAUDEKSEEN, miksi sitten minutkin vielä syntisenä tuomitaan? --”)
  • All translations of the Bible are necessarily interpretive to some extent, but the Targums differ in that they are interpretive as a matter of policy, and often to an extent that far exceeds the bounds of translation or even paraphrase. It is perhaps against such license that Rabbi Judah (2nd century A.D.) declared with paradoxical vehemence, "He who translates a biblical verse literally is a liar, but he who elaborates on it is a blasphemer." (3)

Viite 1.Vaikka nimi Onkelos muistuttaa Akvilaa, ei ole syytä asettaa Targumia Akvilan tekemäksi. Akvila teki sanatarkan kreikkalaisen käännöksen Hebrealaisista kirjoituksista toisella vuosisadalla.
  • 1. Though the name Onkelos corresponds to Aquila, there is no reason to ascribe this Targum to the Aquila who made a literalistic Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures in the second century.
Muita viitteitä:
  • 2. See Michael Klein, "Converse Translation: A Targumic Technique," Biblica 57 (1976), 515-37, and Etan Levine, The Aramaic Version of the Bible (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1988), 33-36 and 151-66.
  • 3. Tosephta, Megillah 4:41, ed. M. S. Zuckermandel (Jerusalem: Bamberger & Wahrmann, 1937), 228.

Bible Research > Ancient Versions > Aramaic Targums > Metzger Article

Käännöstä ja kommenttai 6.9. 2016